Process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile.
sedimentary cycles combined with the hydologic cycle move what?
move most mineral through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
What at hydro carbons?
three gases that consist only of carbon and hydrogen (methane, ethane, and ethylene)
What are molecules assmebled from?
cellular pools of sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides
split molecules at specific groups, then attach one -OH group with an H atom at the exposed sites
small sacs bounded to membranes that divide the interior of eukaryotic cells into functional compartments
1. Organism consist of one or more cells
2. The cell is the smallest unit of organization that displays the properties of life
3. Continuity of life arises directly from the growth and division of single cells
What is somatic cell nuclear transfer?
when descendants of a stem cell, used for therapeutic cloning go on to differentiate into cell types of specific organs and tissues
What is the Ozone a buildup of?
Oxygen added to the atmosphere by autotrophs performing photosynthesis
What does the Krebs Cycle consist of?
Enzymes break down pyruvate to carbon dioxide and water. These reactions may release many electrons and hydrogen atoms
how is spectral karyotyping done?
a range of dyes is used that bind to specific parts of chromosomes
what is a monophyletic group?
included only the descendants from an ancestral species in which a unique feature first evolved
what is a eukaryon?
highly organized nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane, characteristic of higher organisms
The full potential range of the physical, chemical, and biological factors a species can use if there is no competition from other species.
the range of resources and conditions a species actually uses or can tolerate at optimal efficiency; smaller than fundamental niche
Cellular respiration that uses oxygen, sequentially releasing energy and storing it in ATP
organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions
Any factor that acts to reduce or block the flow of genes between two populations
the aggregate of small plant and animal organisms that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water
evolution on the smallest scale—a generation-to-generation change in the frequencies of alleles within a population
Evolutionary change on a grand scale, encompassing the origin of new taxonomic groups, evolutionary trends, adaptive radiation, and mass extinction.
adaptation that lasts only as long as the individual organisms does (plants in windy places)
physical barriers stop gene flow among populations or subpopulations of a species. Interbreeding will no longer be possible in the offspring.
a lineage splits when one or more of its population become reproductively isolated and diverse genetically
new species definition
a species is defined by its physical, structural, and functional traits that sets them apart from other species
biological species concept
a species is one or more group of individual that interbreed, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such groups
The process by which a new species evolves from a prior species, the most basic process in macroevolution.
formula used to find the frequency of genotypes in a population in which there are two alleles
A small amount of DNA that is located in the mitochondria of cells. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only through the mother.
breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the traits of both organisms
nucleic acid hybridization
the process of base pairing between a gene and a complementary sequence on another nucleic acid molecule
calibrated by the determination of the number of differences in DNA base sequences or Amino Acid sequences between species being plotted against a series of branch points
dissimilar body parts evolved in similar ways but were in evolutionary distant lineages
what are homologous chromosomes
two chromosomes that are similar in height, shape, and genetic material