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90 terms

Honors Biology Semester One Review

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watershed
any region where precipitation flows into a single stream or river
salinization
Process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile.
how much of freshwater is used for agriculture
2/3
where does carbon cycling occur?
between the ocean and the atmosphere
nitrogen cycle
the circulation of nitrogen
sedimentary cycles combined with the hydologic cycle move what?
move most mineral through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
What at hydro carbons?
three gases that consist only of carbon and hydrogen (methane, ethane, and ethylene)
What caused the great dying
sudden spike of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
What are molecules assmebled from?
cellular pools of sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides
monomers
individual subunits of a larger molecule
polymers
consist of three to millions of subunits
how many atoms can carbon covalently bond with?
four
enzymes
class of proteins that cause metabolic reactions to proceed faster
hydrolysis
split molecules at specific groups, then attach one -OH group with an H atom at the exposed sites
where is eukaryotic dna enclosed?
Nucleus
where is prokaryotic DNA concentrated?
nucleoid
organelles
small sacs bounded to membranes that divide the interior of eukaryotic cells into functional compartments
1. Organism consist of one or more cells
2. The cell is the smallest unit of organization that displays the properties of life
3. Continuity of life arises directly from the growth and division of single cells
Cell Theory
what are the only groups of prokaryotic cells?
archaens and bacteria
What is the cause of Turner syndrome
a girl is given only one x chromosome
what gene is associated specifically with males?
sry
what are adenine and guanine?
purines
what are thymine and cytosine?
pyrimidines
What is the backbone of DN?
Sugar-phospate
What is the inside of DNa consist of?
nucleotides
what does adenine pair with in DNA to RNA transfer?
uracil
what was thought to hold hereditary material befor DNA discovered?
proteins
what did Rosalind Franklin discover?
the structure and dimensions of DNA
Who was Rosalind Franklin neglected by?
Maurice Wilkins
What is somatic cell nuclear transfer?
when descendants of a stem cell, used for therapeutic cloning go on to differentiate into cell types of specific organs and tissues
tRNA
link between the nucleotide sequence of nucleic acids and the amino acids sequence
Where is the correspondence between genes and proteins encoded?
In mRNA transcripts
What are codons?
triplets in which mRNAs bases are read, when docked at a ribosome.
What is the Ozone a buildup of?
Oxygen added to the atmosphere by autotrophs performing photosynthesis
Black people have more of this than white people
Melonin
What does the Krebs Cycle consist of?
Enzymes break down pyruvate to carbon dioxide and water. These reactions may release many electrons and hydrogen atoms
This number results from meiosis reducing the parental chromosome number by half
haploid number
hom many chromosomes do humans have?
46
how many sex chromosomes do humans have?
2
how is spectral karyotyping done?
a range of dyes is used that bind to specific parts of chromosomes
what is a monophyletic group?
included only the descendants from an ancestral species in which a unique feature first evolved
what are the names for evolutionary tree diagrams?
cladograms
what is phylogeny?
the scientific study of evolutionary relationships
fluid mosaic model
every cell membrane has a mixed composition of phospolipids
is the cell membrane fluid, solid, or gaseous?
fluid
what is a eukaryon?
highly organized nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane, characteristic of higher organisms
what is the endocytic pathway?
cells absorb molecules by engulfing them
Carbonyl
Highly reactive and prone to electron transfers
carboxyl
makes carbonyl reactive, when combined with amino and fatty acids
biosphere
the part of earth where life exists
fundamental niche
The full potential range of the physical, chemical, and biological factors a species can use if there is no competition from other species.
realized niche
the range of resources and conditions a species actually uses or can tolerate at optimal efficiency; smaller than fundamental niche
aerobic respiration
Cellular respiration that uses oxygen, sequentially releasing energy and storing it in ATP
anaerobic respiration
Respiration that does not require oxygen
peppered moths in polluted forests are an example of this
directional selection
the individual at both ends of a population are selected against
Stabilizing selection
autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
chemoautotroph
organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions
heterotroph
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
homeostasis
Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
isolating mechanism
Any factor that acts to reduce or block the flow of genes between two populations
plankton
the aggregate of small plant and animal organisms that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water
evolution occurs in this unit of life
population
microevolution
evolution on the smallest scale—a generation-to-generation change in the frequencies of alleles within a population
macroevolution
Evolutionary change on a grand scale, encompassing the origin of new taxonomic groups, evolutionary trends, adaptive radiation, and mass extinction.
disruptive selection
natural selection that favors individuals with either extreme of a trait
shorterm adaptation
adaptation that lasts only as long as the individual organisms does (plants in windy places)
allopatric speciation
physical barriers stop gene flow among populations or subpopulations of a species. Interbreeding will no longer be possible in the offspring.
cladogenesis
a lineage splits when one or more of its population become reproductively isolated and diverse genetically
new species definition
a species is defined by its physical, structural, and functional traits that sets them apart from other species
biological species concept
a species is one or more group of individual that interbreed, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such groups
speciation
The process by which a new species evolves from a prior species, the most basic process in macroevolution.
formula used to find the frequency of genotypes in a population in which there are two alleles
hardy-weing formula
mitochondrial DNA
A small amount of DNA that is located in the mitochondria of cells. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only through the mother.
hydridization
breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the traits of both organisms
nucleic acid hybridization
the process of base pairing between a gene and a complementary sequence on another nucleic acid molecule
molecular clock
calibrated by the determination of the number of differences in DNA base sequences or Amino Acid sequences between species being plotted against a series of branch points
physiological traits
includes metabolic activities that help the body function in the environment
In what type of species is gene swapping rampant?
prokaryotic species
homeotic gene
guide the formation of tissues and organs into orderly patterns
what elements could have played a role in the evolution of primates?
alu elements
morphological convergence
dissimilar body parts evolved in similar ways but were in evolutionary distant lineages
analogous structures
serve the same function, but are not from the same "stem" body part
morphological divergence
change from the body form of a common ancestor
specific spot of a gene on a chromosome
gene locus
piece of dna on a chromosome
gene
what does mitosis begin with? end with?
diploid cells, diploid cells
what does meiosis begin with? end with?
diploid cells, haploid cells
what are homologous chromosomes
two chromosomes that are similar in height, shape, and genetic material
what do all cells start out with?
plasma membrane, a region of DNA, and a cytoplasm