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a glycocalyx of a bacterium composed of organic chemicals firmly attached to the cell surface
long structures that extend beyond the cell surface and propel a cell through the environment
sticky, bristle-like projections on bacteria to allow them to adhere to substance sin the environment or to each other
4 functions of a cell wall
1. provide structure and shape to the cell
2. protect the cell from osmotic forces
3.assists in attaching to other cells
4. resists antimicrobial drugs
glycan portions of peptidoglycan
millions of NAG and NAM molecules that are covalantly linked in chains in which NAG alternates with NAM
beneath the glcocalyx and the cell wall, also called the cell membrane or plasma membrane
fluid mosaic model
membrane structure with mosaic indicating the membranes proteins arranged in a mosaic and fluid indicating the protein and lipids allowed to flow freely within the membrane
functions of a cytoplasmic membrane
1. controls passage of substances into and out of the cell
2. produces molecules for energy storage
3. harvest light energy in phosynthetic bacteria
allows some substances to cross the membrane and prevents others from crossing
net movement of a chemical from an area of higher concentration to and area of lower concentration
proteins in the cyctoplasmic membrane act as channels or carriers to allow certain molecules to diffuse in or out of the cell
when solutions on either side of a selectively permeable membrane have the same concentration of solutes
3 mechanisms of active transport
1. uniport - one chemical at a time
2. antiport - 2 chemicals in opposite directions
3. uniport couple with a symport - - 2 substances in the same direction
active process in some bacteria, substance being transported across the membrane is chemically changed during transport
deposits found withing bacterial cytosol, include lipids, starch, or compounds containing nitrogen, phosphate, or sulfur
Where do many bacteria store carbon and energy
in molecules of glycogen or in a liquid polymer called plyhydoxbutyrate
fimbriae-like structures that radiate out from archaea, like barbed wire, function to securely attached arahaea to biological and inanimate surfaces
Functions of eukaryotic gluycocalyces
1. helping to anchor animal cells to each other
2. strengthening the cell surface
3. providing some protection against dehydration
4. cell-to-cell recognition and communication
assemblages of lipids and proteins that remain together, funtctions 1. signaling the inside of a cell 2. protein sorting 3. some kinds of cell movement
active transport that occurs when pseudopodia surround a substance and bring it into a cell
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