Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account

Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy 3rd Edition

4 Processes of Life

growth, reproduction, responsiveness, metabolism


kind of cell without a nucleus


kind of cell with a nucleus


specialized structures that act like tiny organs to carry on the functions of the cell


gelantious, sticky substance that surrounds the outside of a cell


a glycocalyx of a bacterium composed of organic chemicals firmly attached to the cell surface

slime layer

a loose water-soluble glycocalyx, protect cells from drying out


drying out


long structures that extend beyond the cell surface and propel a cell through the environment

3 parts of a flagella

filament, hook, basal body

peritrichous flagella

flagella that cover the surface of a cell

polar flagella

flagella only at the end of a cell


flagella that spiral tightly around a cell instead of protruding


movement in response to stimuli


movement in response to a light stimulus


movement in response to a chemical stimulus


sticky, bristle-like projections on bacteria to allow them to adhere to substance sin the environment or to each other


slimy masses of microbes adhering to a substrate by means of fimbriae and glycocalyces


tubules composed of a protein called pilin, longer than fimbriae, shorter than flagella

4 functions of a cell wall

1. provide structure and shape to the cell
2. protect the cell from osmotic forces
3.assists in attaching to other cells
4. resists antimicrobial drugs


spherical cells that appear singly, in chains, clusters, or cuboidal packets


rod-shaped cells that appear singly or in chains


complex polysaccaharide that makes up cell walls

glycan portions of peptidoglycan

millions of NAG and NAM molecules that are covalantly linked in chains in which NAG alternates with NAM

peptido portion of peptidoglycan

crossbridges of 4 amino acids that attach chains of NAG and NAM

2 types of bacterial cell walls

Gram-positive and Gram-negative

cytoplasmic membrane

beneath the glcocalyx and the cell wall, also called the cell membrane or plasma membrane

phospholipid bilayer

structure of the cytoplasmic membrane


attracted to water


repelled by water

fluid mosaic model

membrane structure with mosaic indicating the membranes proteins arranged in a mosaic and fluid indicating the protein and lipids allowed to flow freely within the membrane

functions of a cytoplasmic membrane

1. controls passage of substances into and out of the cell
2. produces molecules for energy storage
3. harvest light energy in phosynthetic bacteria

selectively permeable

allows some substances to cross the membrane and prevents others from crossing

concentration gradient

difference in concentration of a chemical on the two sides of a membrane

electrical gradient

voltage across the membrane


net movement of a chemical from an area of higher concentration to and area of lower concentration

facilitate diffusion

proteins in the cyctoplasmic membrane act as channels or carriers to allow certain molecules to diffuse in or out of the cell


diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane


when solutions on either side of a selectively permeable membrane have the same concentration of solutes


when the concentrations of solutions are unequal, the higher concentration of solutes


when the concentrations of solutions are unequal, the lower concentration of solutes

3 mechanisms of active transport

1. uniport - one chemical at a time
2. antiport - 2 chemicals in opposite directions
3. uniport couple with a symport - - 2 substances in the same direction

group translocation

active process in some bacteria, substance being transported across the membrane is chemically changed during transport


gelatinous material inside a cell


liquid portion of the cytoplasm


region of a prokayote that contains the cell's DNA


deposits found withing bacterial cytosol, include lipids, starch, or compounds containing nitrogen, phosphate, or sulfur

Where do many bacteria store carbon and energy

in molecules of glycogen or in a liquid polymer called plyhydoxbutyrate


a structure produced by some bacteria to defend it from hostile conditions


site of protein synthesis in cells


internal network of fibers in a cell, helps to form a cell's basic shape

analagous structures

similar structure without having a common ancestor


fimbriae-like structures that radiate out from archaea, like barbed wire, function to securely attached arahaea to biological and inanimate surfaces

Functions of eukaryotic gluycocalyces

1. helping to anchor animal cells to each other
2. strengthening the cell surface
3. providing some protection against dehydration
4. cell-to-cell recognition and communication

membrane rafts

assemblages of lipids and proteins that remain together, funtctions 1. signaling the inside of a cell 2. protein sorting 3. some kinds of cell movement


active transport that occurs when pseudopodia surround a substance and bring it into a cell


when a solid is brought into a cell by endocytosis


when a liquid is brought into a cell by endocytosis


reverse of endocytosis, enables substances to be exported from a cell

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording