AP Psych: Development
Terms in this set (60)
Relaxed parenting style; no rules.
Very strict parenting style; rules are established and not negotiable
Parenting style in which rules are set and logic is provided for why the rules are in place. Parents are open to suggestions.
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
A concept or frame work that organizes and interprets information.
Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.
Adapting our current understandings to incorporate new information.
First stage in Piaget's stages of cognitive development. From birth to 2 years. During this stage, infants experience stranger anxiety and begin to understand object permeance.
Second stage in Piaget's stage of cognitive development. From 2-6/7 years. During this stage, children are very egocentric and 'play pretend' frequently.
Third stage in Piaget's stage of cognitive development. From 7-11 years. Children develop a sense for conservation and they begin to understand more complex math concepts.
Last stage in Piaget's stages of cognitive development. From 12- adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts and develop more mature moral reasoning.
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
The difficulty children have in seeing someone else's view point.
Theory of mind
People's ideas about their own and others' mental states about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, not the behaviors these might predict.
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display starting at the age of 8 months.
An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
An optimal period shortly after birth where an organism's exposure to a certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
According to Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy. This is formed during infancy if the infant has been properly cared for (food, warmth etc).
Stage of moral development during which morals are based on self interest (doing something to gain a reward or not be punished).
Stage of moral development during which morals are based on law and what is perceived to be the right thing to do (do it bc its breaking the law, do it to be seen as a hero).
Stage of moral development during which morals are formed by our personal beliefs of what is right (ex: Breaks the law bc the law does not support their moral beliefs).
Trust vs Mistrust
First stage of Erikson's stages of Psychosocial development. Issue: _______________ ____________ . If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of trust; if not met, infants may have issues trusting people in the future.
Autonomy vs shame
Second stage of Erikson's stages of Psychosocial development. Issue:__________ _______________ . During this stage, toddlers either learn how to do things on their own or they may be dependent upon others in the future.
Initiative vs guilt
Third stage of Erikson's stages of Psychosocial development. Issue:_____________ ______________ . During this time, children learn how to do take initiative, but they may begin to feel guilty for their efforts to take charge.
Industry vs inferiority
Fourth stage of Erikson's stages of Psychosocial development. Issue:_____________ _________________ . During this time, children either learn how to apply themselves and work hard, or they feel inferior to their high achieving peers.
Identity vs role confusion
Fifth stage of Erikson's stages of Psychosocial development. Issue: _______________ __________________. Teens either develop a sense of self, or they become confused as to what their role in society is.
Intimacy vs isolation
SIxth stage of Erikson's stages of Psychosocial development. Issue: __________________ ___________________. Young adults either form intimate relationships, or they isolate themselves.
Generativity vs stagnation
Seventh stage of Erikson's stages of Psychosocial development. Issue: .___________________ ___________________ During this time, adults begin to question the meaning of their life.
Eighth stage of Erikson's stages of Psychosocial development. Issue: _______________ vs _________________. During this time, adults look back on their lives' with either a feeling of satisfaction or bitterness.
Our sense of self; according to Erikson, adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?", that comes from our group memberships.
In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
Psychologist that focused on moral development.
Psychologist that focused on social development; he is a neo-freudian but he thinks that issues do not spring from unsettled sexual desires, but instead, social conflicts.
The fertilized egg
The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
An agent such as a chemical or virus that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In some cases, symptoms include facial misproportions.
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Our understanding and evaluation of who we are.
The study of how and why humans change over the course of their life.
Cross sectional research
This method of research uses participants of different ages to compare intelligence. One major flaw with this is that it does not account for generational differences.
Method of research in which subjects are followed from childhood to adulthood and their intelligence is tracked.
Specific, inborn, automatic responses to certain stimuli; mostly present in newborns.
A psychologist who conducted an experiment in which monkeys were separated from their mothers and the mothers were replaced with wire or cloth 'mothers'.
Piaget held that egocentrism is part of which stage?
In Piaget's stage of concrete operational intelligence, the child acquires an understanding of the principle of which of the following:
During this stage of cognitive development, children acquire object permeance.
This Developmental Psychologist suggested that attached children develop an attitude of basic trust.
_____________ maturing boys are more popular and self-assured than boys who mature____________
A person's ability to think abstractly is called _______________ intelligence.
Fluid intelligence ____________________ (increases/decreases) with age.
After puberty, the self-concept usually becomes more _______________ (pos/neg) in both boys and girls.