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Linkage Institutions, Special Interest Groups, and Mass Media
Terms in this set (69)
organized groups which exist all around the edge of the US federal government, but are outside the actual structure. they exist to shape policy and connect (or link) citizens to their government.
What are the 4 groups of a linkage institution?
1 political parties
2 special interest groups
3 mass media
what does political parties and interest groups influence?
attempt to influence governmental decisions by either selecting the candidate or by impacting the actions of already elected officials
how does media influence the government?
a critical connection to government by reporting on proposed or enacted policy decisions. media is easy to criticize, but necessary for our decisions.
made up of individuals who organize to nominate candidates, win elections, help operate government, and influence public policy
what did the founders of US political system hope to avoid?
the mischief of political factions. they envisioned a government with enough points of influence to make parties unnecessary. reminded much of British politics
what is the functions of political parties?
1 select candidates
2 run campaigns
3 give cues & informing the public
4 organizing the government
select candidates for political office
parties pick policy makers and run campaigns. most elected officials run as nominees of a major political party
most candidates rely on the party organization to coordinate and fund their political campaigns and provide expertise related to buying airtime for commercials and conducting polling to aid the candidate
give cues & informing the public
parties articulate policies and give cues to voters. both major parties are by necessity broadly based, each convey an image and endorse policies that help voters decide which candidates to support
organizing the government
parties coordinate governmental policy making that would be more fragmented among the three branches and the local, state, and federal levels.
battle between democrats and republicans for the control of public offices
two ways political parties help to organizes the government is...
1 leadership within congress, along with committee chairs and selected by party membership
2 president usually only selects cabinet heads of the same party
why is party competition important?
there would be no choice and without choice there would be no democracy.
what is a political party's primary purpose?
to win elections!!!!
perception of each party; stereotypes
when a citizen self-proclaims a preference for one party or the other
has party identification been growing or slipping since 1955?
it has been slipping for both parties because 2 parties cannot capture the full ideas for people to identify with
rationale choice theory
largest group of people that individuals act on their own best interest; vote to benefit yourself
voting with one party for one office and the other party for another office. most times independents use this technique.
only voting for candidates of one particular party
plurality, winner-take-all system/single-member district system
only one candidate can win the public office being contested
set of individuals with a common interest on which every political party depends
committed member of a political party
ex. republican and democratic
why is partisanship important
parties are based on political philosophy and there are different philosophies how the government should be approached
Hatch Act 1939
making government jobs be based on merit
key organizational unit of the party structure is...
located at the city, county, and state levels
each political party has a national committee which organizes a National Party Convention every four years for the purpose of officially nominating the candidate selected via the primary process.
serves as spokesperson and executive of national party activities. serves as head of party of candidate is not selected.
1968 Democrat Convention
bad time because President Lyndon B. Johnson announced he would seek reelection, a year of violence, over 100 cities of civil unrest and riots after assassination of MLK Jr. and Robert Kennedy.
response to demands of reform by minority groups and others who sought better representation
first established by Democratic Party in 1984; give senior party leaders a larger nice in the nominating process
are super delegates required to stay pledged to a specific candidate?
historical periods in which a majority of voters cling to the party in power which tends to win a majority of the elections
people shifting from one party, usually the majority party to the minority party
gradual disengagement of people and politicians from the parties
problems of divided government
brings with the problem of gridlock, the tendency to paralyze decision making, with one branch advocating one policy and the other another, contradictory policy
what contributed to divided government?
split ticket voting
one party controls the presidency while the other controls at least one house of Congress
two categories minor parties may be divided into are...
1. dominated by an individual personality
2. organized around a long lasting goal or ideology
what did Madison predict to be the longest lasting and most powerful type of special interest faction?
how to control special interest factions?
1. new federal government would have more power and better equipped to stand up to them
2. factions would be pitted against each other to neutralize their power
organization of people who enter political process to try to achieve their shared policy goals
they feel passionate about an issues
being a member because you are part of a larger group with hundreds or thousands of other members
factors that contributes to a successful interact group
3. financial resources
concerned primarily with profits, prices, and wages
better working conditions and higher wages
acreage controls, environmental concerns, price supports, and import quotas
represent various occupations, policies that affect their professions
equality and justice interests
championed equal rights and justice, particularly for women and minorities
promote pollution control, wilderness protection, and population control
behalf of consumers
Political Action Committees (PACs)
political arms of interest groups, legally entitled to raise funds to contribute to favored candidates, political parties, or causes; raise "hard" money for the purpose of defeating or electing candidates to federal office
may raise and spend unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals to advocate for or against political candidates as long as they don't directly donate to political candidates or coordinate with their campaign
-influence government through electoral process
- slate of candidates for public office
- generate and support a broad spectrum of policies
-PACs influence election results
-PACs support candidates, do not run their own slate of candidates
-support one or a few related policies
attempt to influence government policies
attempts to influence a legislative body
attempts to influence legislation by attempting to affect the opinion of the public
interest groups need to get and keep people in office who support their cases
amicus curiae / "friends of the court"
interest groups may influence court decisions by filling these briefs consist of written arguments submitted to courts in support of one side of a case or the other
class action lawsuits
enable a group of similar plaintiffs to combine their grievances into a single suit
funds established usually by prominent families or corporations for philanthropy
federal grants and contracts
not granted directly to organizations for lobbying purposed but may be given to support a project the organization supports
direct mail to solicit funds
government officials, both in congress and executive agencies quit their jobs to take positions as lobbyists or consultants to businesses
iron triangle / sub-government
consists of interest groups, members of congressional subcommittees, and agency bureaucrats
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