67 terms

10.6 Human Development application review questions

STUDY
PLAY
accommodation
Piaget's term for the modification of an established schema to fit a new object or problem
assimilation
Piaget's term for the application of an established schema to new objects or problems
attachment
a long-tern feeling of closeness between people, such as a child and a caregiver
authoritarian parents
those who exert firm controls on their children, generally without explaining the reasons for the rules and without providing much warmth.
conservation
the concept that objects retain their weight, volume, and other properties in spite of changes in their shape or arrangement
cross-sectional study
Yesterday Professor Eaton asked children of different ages (6 through 12) to list their favorite foods, and then compared the results for different ages. This is an examples of which kind of study?
dishabituation
an increase in a previously habituated response as a result of the change in the stimulus
egocentric
"If I know what I am talking about, other people will understand too." This statement is an example of _______ thought.
habituation
a decrease in a person's response to a stimulus after it has repeatedly been presented.
identity achievement
the outcomes of having explored various possible identities and them making one' own decision.
identity crisis
concerns with decisions about the future and the quest for self-understanding.
identity diffusion
the condition of having not yet given any serious thought to identify decisions and having no clear sense of identity
identity foreclosure
the state of having made firm identity decision and having no clear sense of identity.
identity moratorium
the state of seriously considering one's identity without yet having made any serious decisions
longitudinal study
An investigator measures the moral reasoning of a group of 12 year olds, and four years later measures their moral reasoning again to determine how it changed. This study follows which design?
object permanence
the concept that objects continue to exist even when one does not see, hear or otherwise sense them
operation
According to Piaget a mental process that can be reversed
preoperational stage
According to Piaget, a boy in this stage of development would have trouble understanding that his mother is also someone's daughter.
schema
an organized way of interacting with the world
sensorimotor
According to Piaget, children respond only to what they see and hear, rather than what they might remember or imagine, in the ______stage
sequential design
A researcher administers a personality test to Group A, age 14, and to Group B, age 16. Two years later, the researchers administer the same test to participants from Group A, now age 16, and to Group B, now age 18. The researcher is using what type of design?
concrete operations
according to Piaget the ability to deal with the properties of concrete objects but not hypothetical or abstract questions.
formal operations
according to Piaget the stage when children develop the ability to deal with abstract, hypothetical situations, which demand logical, deductive reasoning and systematic planning.
Strange Situation
a procedure in which a psychologist observes an infants behavior in an unfamiliar room at various times as the stranger enters, leaves and returns and the mother enters, leaves and returns.
temperament
people's tendency to be either active or inactive, outgoing or reserved, and to respond vigorously or quietly to new stimuli.
theory of mind
an understanding that other people have a mind too and that each person knows some things that other people don't know
zone of proximal development
the distance between what a child can do on his her her own and what the child can do with the help pf adults or older children.
Carol Gilligan
criticized Kohlberg's view of moral development saying it concentrated on one type of moral reasoning(justice) and ignored another approach (caring).
Jean Piaget
studied how children's thought processes differ from those of adults
Harry Harlow
observed that infant monkeys without mothers or companions became attached to pieces of cloth in their cages.
imprinting
the process by which some animals form immediate attachments during a critical period.
Mary Ainsworth
1913-1999; Field: development; Contributions: compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; Studies: The Strange Situation-observation of parent/child attachment
universal principles
According to Kohlberg, the highest stage of moral reasoning is one in which people make their decisions on the basis of______.
reward and punishment
According to Kohlberg, the lowest stage of moral reasoning is one in which people make their decisions on the basis of ______.
justice
Kohlberg's type of moral reasoning has been called a _______ orientation.
caring
Gilligan's alternative to moral reasoning is a ______orientation.
trust
According to Erickson, the main concern of a newborn infant is
adolescents
According to Erickson, the identity crisis is of greatest concern to people of what age?
young adult
According to Erickson, intimacy or isolation is of greatest concern to people in which age group?
generativity vs. stagnation
According to Erickson, the major conflict of middle adulthood (late 20s through retirement) is
human face
Two-day old infants typically would spend the most time looking at a
preoperational stage
A child is shown a scale model of a full size room. A tiny toy is hidden behind the miniature couch and the child is told "A big toy just like this is hidden in the same place in the bigger room." When taken to the big room, the child searches haphazardly for the big toy, rather than looking behind the couch. Which stage of Piaget's is the child in?
conservation
An experimenter shows a child two glasses of water and then pours the water from one of them into a glass of a different shape. Then the experimenter asks whether the new glass has more or less water than the other one. Which Piaget concept is this experiment demonstrating?
fetus
Beginning at about 8 weeks after conception, and throughout the remainder of the prenatal period a developing human is called a
frightened
Infants who were "inhibited" at age 4 months have been shown to be easily _______ when tested later
teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
rooting reflex
When Joan touched her infant's cheeck, he turned his head towards the side that was touched and opened his mouth. Joan was eliciting the
embryo
After 10 days, a fertilized egg cell attaches to the uterine wall. What is the developing human called as of this point?
pruning
Excess neural connections in the brain's association areas are reduced through a process of
stages
Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child develops through a series of
assimilation
Three-year-old Zara calls all four-legged animals "kitties." Her tendency to fit all four-legged animals inot her exsisting conception of a kitten illustrates the process of
accomodation
Nageeb thought all nurses were female until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him. Nageeb's altered conception of a "nurse" illustrates the process of
sensorimotor
Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget's ___stage.
tend and befriend
Woman are more likely than men to
Authoritative
__________parents are more likely to have children who have high self-esteem and are self-reliant
basic trust
Erik Erikson suggested that chjildren with a secure attachment to their parents are especially liekly to experience
fear of failure
Securely attached people exhibit less
imprinting
A 1-day old duckling demonstartes attachment to a ball. This is an example of the concept of ____________.
nonnourishing cloth
In Harry Harlow's research the infant monkeys preferred the______ mother.
Lev Vygotsky
The psychologist who noted that talking to themselves enables children to control their behaviors and emotions and master new skills was enhanced by
theory of mind
The ability of preschool children to empathize with classmates who are feeling sad illustrates that preoperational children have developed a
earlier
Current research on cognitive development indicates that mental skills developed ____ than Piaget believed.
stable
A child's termperament is likely to be _____ over time
object permanence
Lisa attempts to retrive her bottle after her father hides it under the blanket. This suggests that Lisa has developed a sense of ______ _______
egocentrism
Although Mr. Tong was obviously busy reading an absorbing novel, his daughter kept interrupting him. Mr. Tong became irritated with his daughtr for being inconsiderate . He should be made aware of Piaget's concept of ________
indifference
In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with insecure maternal attachment are most likely to show ______ to their mother's return after a brief absence.
responsive parenting
_______ __________ contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and mothers.