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Terms in this set (60)
Bureaucracy is based on
Master status refers to
The most widely recognized among several positions.
The struggle of women to change certain discriminatory practices concerns
A reference group is a
Group to which an individual aspires to belong.
Organizations open to all who feel their goals are worthwhile are called
Utilitarian organizations are so named because they
provide material benefits in exchange for work.
An extreme type of coercive organization is called
Max Weber intended his "ideal type" of bureaucracy as an
idealized or exaggerated model of rational administration
Generally, ascribed statuses are more prevalent than the achieved statuses in
Which concept refers to a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person`s entire life
A role set refers to
a number of roles attached to a single status
What is the concept that refers to the conflict among roles corresponding to two or more statuses
Shawna is an excellent artist, but as a mother, she feels that she cannot work and devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing
The Thomas theorem states that
situations defines as real are real in their consequences
The reality we construct through social interaction is likely influenced by our
social class background
Research on gender and personal performances suggests that
women "read" men better than men "read" women
An important element of nonverbal communication is
The careful observer can notice clues indicating that someone is telling a lie. People give off these clues because
nonverbal communication is hard for most people to control.
Tact is a common response in potentially embarrassing situations because
everyone feels discomfort when a constructed reality breaks down.
Most women take the family name of the man they marry. In sociological terms, this is an example of how language can be used to convey
power over others
from a social-conflict point of view, jokes
can be a way of making one category of people feel good at the expense of another.
The success story of the McDonald`s organization explains
that the organizational principles of McDonald`s have come to dominate our social life.
Which of the following is every society`s most important primary group
Assume you are one of many people assembled at a university graduation ceremony. The concept that best describes this gathering is a
A secondary group is a social group that
is impersonal and engages in some specific activity.
One characteristic of secondary groups is
weak emotional ties between members
An example of a primary group is
a family that has gathered to celebrate a religious holiday.
__________________ refers to group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being.
Which type of leader encourages everyone in a group to have a say in what happens?
According to the findings of Solomon Asch,
many people are willing to compromise their own judgement to avoid being seen as different by others.
The process called "groupthink" refers to
a group that gets different ideas from everyone and is unable to come up with any decision at all.
During the process of groupthink
group members quickly settle on a position and then they treat other possibilities as oppositional.
A social group toward which a person feels competition or opposition is
The development of social media means that
in the computer age, typical social networks now link more people.
Which type of formal organization is sometimes called a "voluntary association"?
A prisoner would consider a maximum-security prison
a coercive organization
The basic idea behind scientific management is that
applying scientific principles can make a business more efficient.
U.S business organizations differ from those a century ago because
today`s organizations use more competitive work teams.
Evidence of the process called the "McDonaldization" of society includes
bank tellers being replaced with automatic teller machines (ATMs).
"Crime" differs from "deviance" in that crime
refers to a violation of norms enacted into law.
Every society uses various strategies to regulate the behavior of individuals; this general process is called
The formal system that responds to alleged violations of the law using police, courts, and prison officials is called
the criminal justice system
According to Robert Merton`s strain theory, how would you classify a low-paid, yet compulsively conforming bank teller who never seems to want to get ahead but never seems to do anything wrong?
Cloward and Ohlin extended Merton`s theory of deviance, stating that crime
reflects both limited legitimate opportunity as well as accessible illegitimate opportunity.
Whether people respond to deviance as a moral issue or a medical matter affects
whether the person is subject to punishment or treatment.
Edwin Sutherland stated that white collar crime
is usually resolved in a civil rather than a criminal court
____________ refers to the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf.
a far smaller share of crimes than men.
A judge sentences a young man who has committed several crimes to counseling and places him in a supportive foster home. These efforts to prevent further wrongdoing are called
Deviance that has not been discovered is called
Criminologists Cloward and Ohlin classified delinquent gangs into which of the following categories
Criminal, realist, conflict
The greatest problem with capital punishment is that
sometimes an innocent person is put to death.
A low incidence of deviance is more characteristic of
Embezzlement and fraud are two examples of
white collar crime
Drug addiction has been characterized as a victim-less crime, meaning that
addicts choose to be addicted, and hurt no one but themselves
Arson and burglary are examples of _____ while prostitution and vagrancy are examples of __________
Crimes against Poverty; Social Order Crimes
The rationalization for having capital punishment is that
it acts as a deterrent
According to criminologists
the death penalty does not act as a deterrent.
The crime rate tends to ______ during good economic times and ________ during hard economic times.
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