Imperialism Vocabulary 1 - 49
Terms in this set (51)
-British built Confederate commerce raider responsible for capturing over 60 vessels
-naval cruiser that sank tons of Union shipping
-ALSO an Illinois-class pre-dreadnought style battleship in the United States Navy
William H. Seward
-Secretary of state under Presidents Lincoln and Johnson
-believed that the US must inevitably exercise commercial domination "on the Pacific Ocean, and its islands and continents"
-engineered the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 as a way of removing the most recent colonial power from the New World.
-secretary of state under president roosevelt
-President of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
-Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt
-pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal
-Secretary of State William Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.
-everyone thought this was a mistake to buy Alaska the "ice box"
-turned out to be the biggest bargain since the Louisiana purchase
Josiah Strong; Our Country
-criticized the American foreign policy and imperialism, America needs more Christian or religious motives instead of economic ones
- a racist and religious justification for American expansion
-argued that the American country and people were superior because they were Anglo-Saxon
Pan-Americanism and James G. Blaine
-idea that the United States and Latin America should work together to support peace and increase trade
-James G. Blaine sought to open up Latin American markets to the U.S.
-rejected by Latin America due to fear of U.S. dominance and satisfaction with European market
-1884 nomination for the Rebublican presidential candidate
-stated that events in the Americans affected the U.S. and we thus had reason to intervene
-the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
-tried to wrest control of Hawaii from American sugar growers --> failed
-gave the U.S. naval rights to Pearl Harbor in 1887
Cleveland and Hawaii
-President Cleveland didn't want to forcibly annex Hawaii so he waited five years
-McKinley finally did it
-Cleveland felt the annexation overstepped the federal government's power
Alfred T. Mahan, The Influence of Seapower Upon History
-stated that National Power lies in foreign trade and the wealth that it creates.
-expanded foreign market is the key to strength & prosperity
-security lies in a strong market to protect American foreign markets
-Mahan invented the term "Middle East" when referring to the Persian Gulf.
-important idea is that all great empires in history were naval powers
Venezuela Boundary Dispute (1895)
-dispute between the U.S. and Britain involving the point at which the Venezuela
-US used the threat of war
-Columbia border was drawn
-Britain eventually won the dispute.
"White Man's Burden"
-belief that Europeans had a moral responsibility to civilize "primitive peoples"
-journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
-sort of like muckrakers
-tainted journalism -> not completely true
William Randolph and Joseph Pulitzer
-NY newspaper tycoons
-they helped to start the fighting in Cuba against Spain for the their independence by using exaggerated stories in their papers\
-Cubans started to rebel
-Spaniards reorganized prisoners into labor camps
-sinking of this U.S. battleship in Havanna, Cuba which the U.S. blamed on Spain was the main cause of the Spanish-American War
-caused anti-Spanish sentiment in the US
-excuse to go to war with Spain
de Lome Letter
-by Spanish minister to the United States
-private letter to a friend
-made several insulting remarks about President McKinley
-yellow journalists overplayed it
-war hawks used it as a reason to go to war
-drafted by Henry M. Teller
-Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
-so Europe would think that this war wasn't about imperialistic concerns
-US didn't really follow it after
Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Riders
-famous troop under second in command of First Volunteer Cavalry
-made up of ivy league athletes, ex convicts, indians, sharpshooters
-(volunteers) to fight in the Spanish- American War in Cuba
-charged up San Juan Hill during the battle of Santiago
-made Roosevelt popular.
Commodore George Dewey
-admiral of the united states navy and best known for his victory during the Spanish - American war
Battle of Manilla Bay
-First Battle of the Spanish-American War in the Philippines
-decisive US victory under Commodore George Dewey (US steel ships vs. Spanish wooden ships)
Battle of San Juan Hill
-one of the most important battles of the Spanish-American War
-Roosevelt and Rough Riders defeated Spain. -placed America at an advantage
Annexation of Hawaii
-U.S. had exclusive use of Pearl Harbor
-U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free
-U.S. also wanted to use the islands as ports
-Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893,
-William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898
Treaty of Paris (1898)
-treaty that concluded the Spanish American War
-America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philippines.
-Cuba was freed from Spain
-Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty
-gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Phillipines, Guam, Puerto Rico, Guantanamo Bay
-US gained these territories from spain under the treaty of paris 1898
"The American Lake"
-term used to refer to American dominance over the Pacific Ocean
-extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
-Theodore Roosevelt believed in this extreme form of expansion
Insular Cases (1901)
-set up to determine whether or not the newly-acquired lands would be afforded the same rights as Americans
-decided that the Constitution and Bill of Rights did not necessarily extend to include the islands
-but people from the acquired lands can get US citizenship and the right to vote/elect in America
-leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898).
-proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899
-his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901
-objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire
-believed that every country captured by the U.S. had the same rights under the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence
-before the Philippines was annexed by the U.S. there existed tension between U.S. troops and Filipinos
-an armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following annexation by the United States
-treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. -abrogated by the U.S. in 1881
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)
-Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral
-U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal
-Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia -U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal
-U.S encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.
-1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.
1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.
-U.S. would act as international policemen
-addition to the Monroe Doctrine
Panama Canal Zone
-U.S. territory around the Panama Canal
1902 - England, Germany and Italy blockaded Venezuelan ports because Latin American countries failed to make payments on debts owed to foreign banks
-U.S. invoked the Monroe Doctrine and pressured the European powers to back off.
Foraker Act (1900)
-established Puerto Rico as an unorganized U.S. territory
-Puerto Ricans were not given U.S. citizenship, but the U.S. president appointed the island's governor and a governing council
Jones Act (1917)
-was passed by the United States to regulate trade in Puerto Rico
-established the Sea Land service to prevent carriers and shippers from using unfair pricing practices
-establishment encouraged parallel pricing for all carriers
"Spheres of Influence" and the Open Door Policy
-a geographical area over which a nation exercises control, particularly economic control.
-Around 1900, China was being carved into European (and a Japanese) spheres of influence. -Open Door notes, called for free trade and recognition of the territorial integrity of China
-1899 rebellion in Beijing, China
-started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils"
-rebellion was ended by British troops
Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth
-Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Manchuria after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) -Japan victorious
-U.S. mediated the end of the war
-negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige
-Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for mediation
-1907: Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emigration of its nationals to the U.S
-1908: Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific
-uphold the Open Door policy in China.
"Great White Fleet"
-1907-1909: Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power
-to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
"Big Stick" Diplomacy
-Roosevelt: walk softly and carry a ________."
-In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them.
-Threaten to use force, act as international policemen.
-US foreign policy in Latin America
Secretary of State John Hay
-Secretary of State under TR
-sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities (open door policy)
-Using the power of the U.S. economy to accomplish diplomatic goals.
-Taft and Knox came up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary.
-It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
"Missionary" or "Moral" Diplomacy
-Woodrow Wilson's idea of the United States' ___________________ to deny recognition to any Latin American government that was viewed as hostile to American interests.
-This was the first time America had failed to recognize any government, besides the confederacy.
-It was an expansion of President James Monroe's 1823 Monroe Doctrine.
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