93 terms

Richard Chapter 17

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What domain is a protist?
Eukaryote
What kingdom is a protist?
Protista
What does kingdom protista contain?
all eukaryotes that are not animals, plants, or fungi
What kingdom is very diverse?
protista
What does free living mean?
Live on its own
What does unicellular mean?
one-celled
Protists are ____________ and ____________.
Unicellular and free living
Are protists heterotrophs or autotrophs?
heterotrophs
What is a heterotroph?
an organism that cannot make its own food and must feed on other organisms for energy and nutrients
How do protists take in food?
phagocytosis
What is phagocytosis?
cell eating by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
Will protists ever divide into more kingdoms?
Possibly
What are the most complex cells?
Protists
What is the simplest eukaryotic organism?
a protist
Why are protists the simplest eukaryotic organism?
Because they are unicellular
Why are prokaryotes simpler than protists?
Because prokaryotes don't have a nucleus
What must a protist do because it is unicellular?
All of the functions for the organism
On what level may protists become more complex?
Cellular
Why might protists become more complex on a cellular level?
Because one cell has to accomplish everything
What are zooflagellates?
Protists that move by flagellum, reproduce asexually by binary fission, most are free living and some are parasites
What is flagellum?
a long, threadlike structure that is attached to the cell wall and enables the cell to move
What does asexually mean?
by itself
What are amoebas?
Protists that move by pseudopodia
What is pseudopodia?
"false feet"; it allows the cell to move in any direction that it wants by extending its plasma membrane in that direction and then pulling itself in that direction. It can also use this too feed off of things. They're microscopic
What is a parasite?
An organism that lives inside or on another organism and takes food from the organism in or on which it lives.
What are forams?
Protists that move by pseudopodia and have porous shells , contain mostly calcium carbonate, and when they die fall to the bottom and make limestone
What is the majority of forams made up of?
Calcium Carbonate(CaCO3)
What are cilliates?
Protists that use cilia to move and are free living and found in fresh water. They have two kinds of nuclei called macronucleus and micronuclei
How do zooflagellates move?
By flagellum
How do zooflagellates reproduce?
Asexually through binary fission
How do amoebas move?
by pseupodia
How do forams move?
by pseudopodia
Which protist has porous shells?
forams
How do cilliates move?
by cilia
Where are cillitates found?
in freshwater
Which protist has 2 kinds of nuclei?
cilliates
What is unique about cilliates?
They have 2 nuclei
What are the names of the Cilliates' nuclei?
Macronucleus and Micronuclei
How many of each nuclei is there in Cilliates?
1 Macronucleus and 1-80 Micronuclei
What are cilia?
Short structures projecting from a cell that are like ors because they move back and forth to make the cell move
What is a macronucleus?
a main nucleus in Cilliates that controls the cells activity
What are micronuclei?
nuclei that are involved in sexual reproduction and undergo conjugation are binary fission. It can have many combinations to reproduce and can have up to 80 of this nuclei
What are the 4 movements of protists?
flagellum, pseudopodia, cilia, and no movement
What are apicomplexans?
protists that have no active motility, are parasites, and its life cycle generally involves two or more different hosts. These protists have plasmodium that causes malaria.
What does no active motility mean?
Can't move on its own
What do the parasites in apicomplexans still have?
symbiosis
Which movement group generally involves two or more different hosts?
apicomplexans
What is plasmodium?
Protozoan that causes malaria and destroys red blood cells
What causes malaria?
the plasmodium in apicomplexans
What is malaria?
a disease caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes that is transferred to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito
What are slime molds?
funguslike protists that play key roles in recycling organic material
What are the 2 types of slime molds?
Plasmodial and Celluar
What is Plasmodial slime mold?
Slime mold that is a decomposer, has plasmodium, sporangia, and a large mass of cytoplasm. When conditions are bas, the plasmodium forms sporangia, fills with spores, and then wind forced the spores out and allows the spores to fall where conditions are better
What is plasmodium?
structure with many nuclei formed by slime molds
What are sporangias?
structures on fungi that fill with spores and are windblown to areas where conditions are better
What is cellular slime mold?
a slime mold whose individual cells remain separated during every phase of the mold's life cycle. It has unicellular and multicellular stages of its life cycle and is a decomposer.
What are the 4 plant like protists?
Euglenoids, dinoflagellates, diatoms, and seaweeds
What are euglenoids?
a plant like protist that is both heterotrophic and autotrophic, have an eyespot to detect light, have a flagellum to aid in movement and a tough and flexible plasma membrane
What process to plant like protists undergo?
photosynthesis
When are euglenoids acting as heterotrophs?
When conditions are bad
When are euglenoids acting as autotrophs?
When conditions are good
What is an eyespot?
a group of cells that can detect changes in the amount of light in their environment
What do euglenoids use to move?
flagellum
What is the plasma membrane of a euglenoid like?
tough and flexible
What are dinoflagellates?
Plant like protists that are unicellular, photosynthetic, make up a part of plankton, live in salt water, reproduce by binary fission, can cause red tied, and some are bioluminescent
What plant like protist makes up a part of plankton?
dinoflagellates
What plant like protists lives in salt water?
dinoflagellates
How do dinoflagellates reproduce?
by binary fission
What plant like protist causes red tide?
dinoflagellates
How do dinoflagellates cause red tide?
When there are a lot reproducing at one time or a large number of them
What plant like protist has some bioluminescent protists?
dinoflagellates
What is bioluminescence?
glowing in the dark
What are diatoms?
plant like protists that have a cell wall made of silica, have two halves that fit together like a shoe box, and its remains become diatomaceous earth which is used as a polishing agent and is in some toothpastes
What plant like protist has a cell wall made of silica?
diatoms
What is silica?
a material found in magma and makes glass
How do diatoms fit together like a shoe box?
One overlaps the other so one is slightly bigger than the other half
What plant like protist is used as a polishing agent and is in some toothpastes?
diatoms
What do the remains of diatoms become?
diatomaceous earth
What are seaweeds?
plant like protists that is multicelluar, lacks true roots,stems, and leaves and have either brown algae, red algae, or green algae
What is brown algae?
seaweed that is kelp and is held to the ocean floor by structures called holdfasts
What are holdfasts?
structures hat hold seaweed to the ocean floor
green algae
seaweed that includes volvox
What is volvox?
a colony of algae
How did we get from bacteria to protista?
Through endosymbiosis
What is endosymbiosis?
one organism living inside of another
What evolved from protista?
animals, plants, and fungi
What protists contain mainly calcium carbonate(CaCO3)?
forams
What protists, when they die, fall to the bottom and make limestone?
Forams
What plant like protist makes up a part of plankton?
dinoflagellates
Contrast the various types of movement used by protists.
Flagellum is a long, threadlike structure that is attached to the cell wall, pseupodiaallows the cell to move in any direction that it wants by extending its plasma membrane in that direction and then pulling itself in that direction and It can also use this too feed off of things, ciliaShort structures projecting from a cell that are like ors because they move back and forth to make the cell move, and the other type of movement is no movement
What protists use phagocytosis?
The ones that take in food
What are the characteristics of Kingdom protista?
-contains all eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, of fungi
-a very diverse kingdom
-the organisms do not "fit" anywhere else
What are photosynthetic protists?
plant like protists
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