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History Chapter 8
Latin American People's Win Independence, Europe Faces Revolutions
Terms in this set (56)
top of the Latin American society, were born in Spain, were a small percent of the population, and were the only ones allowed to hold a high office in colonial government, controlled land, wealth, and power
Spaniards born in Latin America, were right below the Peninsulares in society, could not hold high government offices, could rise in rank in the Armies, controlled land, wealth, and power
Who won independence for Hati?
Jean-Jacques Dessaline, named it Hati meaning "mountain land"
Who freed all the slaves in Hati?
Toussiant O'Luverture, gained slavery by agreeing to end the revolt if all slaves were freed, was still taken to prison where he died
Who brought enlightenment ideas to Latin America?
Creoles who believed in Locke's idea that if the government is corrupt the people have the right to revolt
Who was Simon Bolivar?
was wealthy, born in America, educated from Europe, and believed in Enlightenment ideas, declared Venezuela independent
What did did Venezuela's new constitution change?
abolished Indian tribute, kept black slavery, made Catholic the religion, had to be a land owner to be citizen, free mulatto not the could not be citizens
In the beginning of the war for Venezuela's independence, what helped the patriots; what hindered them?
helped: gained support from Africans who were offered citizenship
hindered: no strategy in the beginning of the war
What happened to Bolivar during the war?
he was captured and exiled twice
After his first exile, Bolivar returned with what new idea?
Equality, and advancement in the ranks could be based on your actions not your skin color
Who was elected dictator of Venezuela?
Spain regains their rightful Spanish king and people began rethinking being independent from Spain. What did Bolivar do?
he exiled himself to escape from being over thrown
Spain tried to retake Venezuela making the people again want to be independent. What happened?
Bolivar returned with the help of the British and again with the idea of equality
Why was Ferdinand over thrown?
the people felt no loyalty, he wasn't Spanish, they wanted to overthrow him, used Locke's ideas to gather rebels
Who declared Argentina's independence?
Who did San Martin join forces with to free Argentina?
What happened once Martin and O'Higgins teamed up?
Chile was freed, Martin gave his army to Bolivar and he defeated Spain, the Spanish lost all their influence in Latin America
What caused Venezuela's Independence?
changes and differences in society, enlightenment ideas, and the American and French revolutions
Why did the Creoles lead the revolt?
they were educated, were influenced by enlightenment ideas, were mistreated by Peninsulares, and had military expirence
How did Brazil win independence from Portugal?
the king of Portugal fled to Brazil to escape Napoleon, Portugal was overthrown and the new capital became Rio, after Napoleon was gone Portugal moved back, Brazil did not want to become a colony again, they asked for Independence and the king declared Brazil independent
What were the three new styles of government?
conservative, liberal, and radical
What was a conservative government?
usually wealthy property owners who argued for protection and restoring the monarchy, wanted little change in the way Europe was
What was a liberal government?
mostly middle-class business leaders who wanted to give more power to parliament with limited voting, only educated and land owners could vote, believed change was good, wanted no monarchy
What was a radical government?
favored much change to extend democracy to all typed of people, believed in ideas of the French revolution: liberty, equality, and brotherhood, wanted lots of change, wanted everyone to be able to vote
What was nationalism?
the idea that people's greatest loyalty should be to a nation of people who share common culture and history, helped blend the three now government types, no king
What is a nation-state?
independent government, defends territory and way of life, a nation-state represents the nation to the rest of the world
What were the three largest nation-states in Europe?
England, France, Spain
Who believed in nationalism?
radicals and liberals led the formation of nation-states
Who did Greece want independence from?
Why did some countries support Greece's fight? Why were others against it?
support: respected Greece's culture
against: didn't want their people to revolt as well
Why did Russia support Greece?
they were Greek Orthodox Christians just like Greece
Who helped Greece win independence?
Britain, France, and Russia
What groups won independence and from what countries?
Belgians from the Dutch, Polish from Russia, and Italy from the peninsula
Who was spreading ideas of a democratic government around France?
Who replaced King Charles X of France?
Louis -Phillippe a liberal
What was the Third Republic and what happened to it?
Louis-Philippe lost power and created and republic, the radicals split into different groups and formed political sides, the sides fought and the republic fell apart
Who takes over France after Louis-Philippe and what did he do fro France?
Louis-Napoleon, empire prospered, he built railroads, encouraged industrialization, created public work, made France stronger
What was wrong with Russia?
not industrialized, still used the feudal system, serfs still worked for nobles
What did people in Russia want changed?
they did not want serfdom so they sent the workers to work in the factories
Who tried to remove serfdom from Russia?
Alexander II because of the lack of industry
What is nationalism?
a love for ones country
What can nationalism do?
bring people together who live in the same general area, ca divide people who do not want to be a part of a bigger group, and can create nation states
Who split the Prussian Empire?
Francis Joseph, ruled both of the new countries: Austria and Hungary, formed the Austro-Hungarian Empire
What threatened the Austro-Hungarian Empire?
Nationalist, they were not pleased with the split of the two countries
What was Russianification?
forcing Russian culture onto people
What did people do in response to the Russianification?
people rebelled and this threatened the Romanous
What agreement did Camillo di Cavovr make with Napoleon III?
defeat the Austrians in return for the control of northern Italy
Who was Guisseppe Garibaldi?
led a revolution in southern Italy, used guerrilla warfare, led the red shirts to defeat Sicily and the state of Naples
What did the pope get in return for give up the last country not united with northern and southern Italy?
his own city to control
WHo became king of united Italy?
Victor Emmanuel II
What made the Germanic states want to unify Germany?
Who appointed Otto van Bismark prime minister?
Where was Bismark from and what did he believe?
he was from the junkers, believed in "blood and iron", thought a common enemy would unite Germany
What war did Prussia win?
the Seven Weeks War
Who did Prussia defeat after the Seven Weeks War?
Who was elected emperor of Prussia?
Otto van Bismark
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Americas, Europe & Africa 1530-1770
Latin American Studies - Vocabulary
Latin American History
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