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International Relations Quiz Review
Terms in this set (33)
Def: A principle for solving collective goods problems by imposing solutions hierarchically; closely related to the IR theory of REALISM.
Gross Domestic Product
Def: The size of a state's total annual economic activity.
Def: Power relationships between nations change, some grow stronger, some weaker, others remain the same; Main direction is horizontal
a coercive approach to international political relations, especially one that involves the use of military power.
Def: Economic power (Buy Jeans, Cars), Capitalism
attracting other countries to the U.S. system and then trapping them in it.
Def: The attraction of American Ideals, Culture, Values
The Diffusion of Power
Def: Because of technology, elements that once were powerless now have power; main direction is vertical
The Transition of Power
A theory that the largest wars result from challenges to the top position in the status hierarchy, when a rising power is surpassing (or threatening to surpass) the most powerful state
The Execution of Power
The Conversion of Power
Def: A tangible or intangible good, created by the members of a group, that is available to all group members regardless of their individual contributions; participants can gain by lowering their own contribution to the collective good, yet if too many participants do so, the good cannot be provided
Def: A principle for solving collective goods problems by changing participants' preferences based on their shared sense of belonging to a community; does not rely on self interest
non-state actors, e.g., NGO's and terrorist groups
Def: A response in kind to another's actions; a strategy of this uses positive forms of leverage to promise rewards and negative forms of leverage to threaten punishment
ve: quid pro quo
ve: "eye for an eye"
Related to the IR Theory of LIBERALISM
Def: an agreement between two or more parties, sometimes illegal and therefore secretive, to limit open competition by deceiving, misleading, or defrauding others of their legal rights, or to obtain an objective forbidden by law typically by defrauding or gaining an unfair market advantage.
Def: a nation considered to be an outcast in the international community; may face international isolation, sanctions or even an invasion by nations who find its policies, actions, or its very existence unacceptable.
Def: When a nation reaps the benefits from collective goods but does not contribute
Def: A broad intellectual tradition that explains international relations mainly in terms of power
One of the most influential theories in international relations
Often referred to as "Realpolitik" and is translated from the German as "pragmatic power politics".
Human nature is basically selfish
Humans have a natural lust for power
Conflict and war is inevitable
Nation-states are the most important actors in world politics
Nation-states should always try to protect and increase their power
The international political system is anarchic and dangerous
States must secure their own safety and cannot rely on others for protection
Military strength is necessary to protect sovereignty and national interests
What do Realists believe?
Def: emphasizes the role of the nation state and considers that entity as the principal player in international politics.
Def: examines the role of human nature in politics; state level theory that argues that all states seek to increase their power.
Def: (aka Realism) An approach that emphasizes international law, morality, and international organization, rather than power alone, as key influences on international relations; developed during the `18th century's age of enlightenment and places emphasis on:
reason, science, knowledge, and secularism
Def: Emphasizes the role of human nature in world politics
Def: Emphasizes the role of international organizations (e.g., UN) in reducing conflicts
centered on the concept of reciprocity
states can create mutual rules, expectations and institutions that enhances cooperation
product of the Enlightenment
Human nature is essentially good or altruistic
International cooperation is possible
People and countries are independent and capable of reciprocity.
It is possible to improve the human condition.
War can be prevented
Conflict results not because people are evil but because evil institutions lead people to act selfishly.
Conflict can be prevented or mitigated through institutions such as the UN>
What do Liberals believe?
Def: A movement in IR theory that examines how changing international norms and actors' identities help shape the content of state interests
Identities, norms, and culture play important roles in world politics.
Identities and interests of states are simply structurally determined, but are rather produced by interactions, institutions, norms, cultures.
It is process, not structure, which determines the manner in which states interact.
Def: A branch of socialism that emphasizes exploitation and class struggle and includes both communism and other approaches.
Political equality and freedom are incomplete (or even illusory) without economic equality.
Redistribution of economic power is aimed at extending democracy far beyond the limits envisioned by earlier democratic revolutions.
Def: comprises a number of egalitarian social, cultural, and political movements, theories and moral philosophies concerned with gender inequalities and equal rights for women.
It is the doctrine advocating social, political and all other rights for women which are equal to those of men.
"...and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violet death: And the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short."
"...where there is no common power there is no law."
"solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short"
The Science of the Right
" Such a union of states.......in order to maintain peace may be called a permanent congress of nations.....all nations free to join......voluntary combination.......dissolveable at any time.....for the settlement of differences by civil porocess."
Nations could develop organizations that could facilitate co-operation.
Peace depends on the internal character of government.
Trade promotes peace.
" A prince who desires to maintain himself must learn to be not always good, but to be so or not as necessity may require."
"In truth there was no other safe way of keeping possession of that country but to ruin it."'
Influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmen's Association. While Marx addressed a wide range of issues, he is most famous for his analysis of history in terms of class struggles, summed up in the opening line of the introduction to the Communist Manifesto: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle."
communism was an advanced stage of socialism.
Socialism would prepare the way by nationalizing the "means of production" and putting them under the control of the sole producers of wealth: the workers.
He viewed political equality and freedom as incomplete (or even illusory) without economic equality.
This redistribution of economic power was aimed at extending democracy far beyond the limits envisioned by earlier democratic revolutions.
Social services like health, education, and housing would be provided free, but people would still be paid wages according to their work.
Def: States whose populations share a sense of national identity, usually including a language and culture.
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