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Anatomy/Physiology: Blood & Lymphatic System Test
Terms in this set (80)
What are the components of blood?
- plasma (nonliving, 55% of blood volume)
- formed elements (living, 45% of blood volume)
What are the physical characteristics and volume of blood?
- oxygen rich = scarlet red color
- oxygen poor = dull red color
- pH must be between 7.35-7.45 (slightly basic)
- blood temperature is slightly greater than body temp
- approximately 5 liters
What is plasma?
- composed of 90% of water
- includes dissolved substances (nutrients, salts, hormones, proteins, waste products, etc)
What are plasma proteins?
- albumin (regulates osmotic pressure)
- clotting proteins (helps stem blood loss from injury)
- antibodies (help protect the body from antigens)
Blood is a type of _____ tissue.
What is NOT a physical characteristic of blood?
What does NOT describe blood plasma?
it is bright red in color
The plasma proteins involved in fighting infections are _____.
- "red blood cells"
- carries oxygen
- biconcave disks that have no nucleus and very little organelles (more room for oxygen!)
- basically bags of hemoglobin
- outnumber white blood cells 1000:1
What is hemoglobin (Hb)?
- iron containing protein
- binds strongly, but reversibly, to oxygen
What is anemia?
- decreased ability to carry oxygen
- caused by too few RBCs or too low hemoglobin count
What is sickle-cell anemia?
genetic condition where RBCs become crescent shaped
What is polycythemia?
too many RBCs causing the blood to thicken
What are leukocytes?
- "white blood cells"
- crucial in the body's defense against diseases
- contains nucleus and organelles
- able to move in/out of vessels (diapedesis)
- can move by ameboid motion
- can respond to chemicals released by damaged tissue
What is leukocytosis?
high levels of WBCs
What is leukopenia?
abnormally low leukocyte level
[ Type of Granulocyte ]
What are neutrophils?
act as phagocytes at active sites ; most abundant
[ Type of Granulocyte ]
What are eosinophils?
found in response to allergies/parasitic worms
[ Type of Granulocyte ]
What are basophils?
have histamine containing granules ; initiate inflammation
[ Type of Agranulocyte ]
What are lymphocytes?
play important role in immune response (B+T cells)
[ Type of Agranulocyte ]
What are monocytes?
function as macrophages ; important in fighting chronic infections
What are platelets?
cell "fragments" that are needed for the clotting process
What are megakaryocytes?
cells that make platelets
What is hematopoiesis?
blood cell formation that occurs in the red bone marrow
What are hemocytoblast stem cells?
a common stem cell that all blood cells are derived from
What is the fate of erythrocytes (RBCs)?
- unable to divide, grow, or synthesize proteins
- "die" in about 120 days
- eliminated by phagocytes in spleen and liver
What is erythropoietin?
- hormone that controls the rate of RBC production
- kidneys produce most erythropoietin as a response to reduced oxygen levels in blood
- HOMEOSTASIS! (negative feedback)
What is the FIRST step of hemostasis.
platelet plug formation :
- collagen fibers are exposed by a break in a vessel
- platelets become sticky + cling to fibers
- anchored platelets attract more platelets
- plug formed
What is the SECOND step of hemostasis.
vascular spasm :
- anchored platelets release serotonin which causes the blood vessel muscles to spasm
What is the THIRD step of hemostasis.
- injured tissues release chemicals that trigger a clotting cascade
- towards the end, thrombin is activated
What are fibrin?
- (in hemostasis) thrombin activates fibrin, which forms a meshwork that is the basis for a clot.
- clot remains as endothelium regenerates and breaks down after tissue repair
What is a thrombus?
- a clot in an unbroken blood vessel
- it can be deadly in areas like the heart
What is an embolus?
- a thrombus that breaks away and floats freely in the bloodstream
- can later clog vessels in critical areas like the brain
What is thrombocytopenia?
- platelet deficiency
- even normal movements can cause bleeding from small blood vessels that require platelets for clotting
What is hemophilia?
- hereditary bleeding disorder
- normal clotting factor are missing from liver
How do you identify your blood type?
blood is "typed" by using antibodies that will cause blood with certain proteins to clump (agglutination).
What is hemolysis?
- antibodies against the antigens on the RBCs are introduced to the blood (bad transfusion/pregnancy)
- RBCs rupture and release their contents into surrounding plasma (NOT GOOD)
What is RhoGAM?
- an injection of anti-Rh+ antibodies that an Rh- woman would receive after delivering a Rh+ baby
- antibodies quickly "cover" and Rh+ antigens that might've entered the mother
- this protects any future children she may have
Where are the sites of blood cell formation?
- fetal liver + spleen are early site of hematopoiesis
- bone marrow takes over hematopoiesis by 7th month
Compatibility testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipients' serum is called _____.
What are lymphatic vessels?
- collect lymph from tissues + move the fluids towards heart
- carries lymph to/away from lymph nodes
What are lymphs?
- excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels
- returns to circulatory system in veins
- materials (water, protein, blood cells) returned to blood
What are edemas?
- excess fluid IN tissues
- may be a result of infection/injury
- lymph vessels MUST pick up this excess fluids
What are lymph nodes?
- filters lymphs before it's returned to the blood
- there are defense cells within lymph nodes
What are the two types of defense cells found in lymph nodes?
- macrophages : engulfs + destroys foreign substances
- lymphocytes (provide immune response to antigens)
What is the spleen?
- forms blood cells in the fetus
- filters blood
- destroys worn out blood cells
- acts as a blood reservoir
What is the thymus gland?
- functions at peak levels during childhood
- produces hormones to program lymphocytes
What are tonsils?
- small masses of lymphoid tissues
- traps + removes bacteria/foreign materials
What are Peyer's Patches?
- resemble tonsils, but in the small intestines
- captures + destroys bacteria in the intestines
What are nonspecific body defenses?
- mechanisms that protect against a variety of invaders
- responds immediately to protect body from foreign things
What are the 4 surface membrane barriers?
- skin : physical barrier
- stomach mucosa : secretes acid
- saliva/lacrimal fluid : contains lysozyme
- mucus : traps microorganisms
What are phagocytes?
- engulf foreign material into a vacuole
- enzymes from lysosomes digest the material
What are the natural killer cells?
- cells that lyse + kill cancer cells
- can destroy virus-infected cells
What is an inflammatory response?
- triggered when body tissues are injured
- produces signs like redness, swelling, heat, pain, etc.
- results in a chain of events leading to healing/protection
What are complements?
proteins in the blood that "poke" holes in infected cells to destroy them
Why is a fever sometimes necessary?
to increase the speed of tissue repair
What induces a fever?
What are specific body defenses?
- antigen-specific : recognizes + acts against particular substance
- systemic : not restricted to initial infection site
- memory : recognizes + mounts a stronger attack on previously encountered pathogens
What are antigens?
any substance that provokes an immune response
Describe the process of a humoral immune response.
- B cells with specific receptors bind to specific antigen
- B cells are activated
- active B cells begin to reproduce identical copies
- becomes plasma cells that produce antibodies
- some B cells become memory cells
What is a secondary response?
- secondary exposure causes a rapid response
- stronger, faster + longer lasting
What is a naturally acquired ACTIVE immunity?
infection, contact with pathogen
What is a naturally acquired PASSIVE immunity?
antibodies passed from mother to fetus through placenta
What is an artificially acquired ACTIVE immunity?
vaccinations, dead/attenuated pathogens
What is an artificially acquired PASSIVE immunity?
injection of immune serum (antibodies)
What are antibodies?
proteins made by B cells that are carried in the blood plasma
What is a cellular immune response?
T cells directly attack infected cells
What are cytotoxic (killer) T cells?
specialized killer of infected cells
What are helper T cells?
- recruits other cells to fight the invaders
- interacts DIRECTLY with B cells
What are suppressor T cells?
- releases chemicals to suppress the activity of T+B cells
- stops the immune response to prevent uncontrolled activity
What are the 3 functions of antibodies?
What are autografts?
tissue taken from one site to another on the same person
What are isografts?
tissue taken from an identical twin
What are allografts?
tissue taken from an unrelated person
What are xenografts?
tissue taken from a different animal species
What are allergies?
abnormal, vigorous immune response
What are the 2 types of allergies?
- immediate hypersensitivity : begins within seconds
- delayed hypersensitivity : symptoms occur after 1-3 days
What are immunodeficiencies?
- production + function of immune cells are abnormal
- may be congenital (born with) or acquired
- includes AIDS
What are autoimmune diseases?
- immune system doesn't distinguish between self + non self
- body produces antibodies + sensitized T cells that attack its own tissues
T-cell activation leads to the formation of cytotoxic T cells and memory T cells that provide _____.
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