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APUSH Period 6 ID's
Terms in this set (84)
American Federation of Labor
An organization of various trade unions that fought for specific reforms and secured livable working conditions for thousands of lower class workers.
The Ashcan School, also called the Ash Can School, was an artistic movement in the United States during the early twentieth century that is best known for works portraying scenes of daily life in New York, often in the city's poorer neighborhoods.
a person who advocates or participates in racial or cultural integration.
Way to manufacture steel quickly & cheaply.
51st congress; held by Harrison; responsible for passing the Land Revision Act of 1891, which created the national forests. Harrison authorized America's first forest reserve in Yellowstone, Wyoming, the same year; its lavish spending and, for this reason, it incited drastic reversals in public support that led to Cleveland's reelection in 1892. Other important legislation passed into law by the Congress included the McKinley tariff, authored by Representative (and future President) William McKinley; the Sherman Antitrust Act, which prohibited business combinations that restricted trade; and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which required the U.S. government to mint silver.
Captains of Industry
Owners & mangers of large industrial enterprises who wielded great political & economic power
More positive term in contrast to "robber barons"
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Chief Joseph and Perez
Forcibly removed from their ancestral lands in the Wallowa Valley by the United States federal government and forced to move northeast, onto the significantly reduced reservation in Lapwai, Idaho Territory.
Chinese Exclusion Act
First law limiting immigration based on race; effectively stopped immigration from China through the end of WWII.
In commercial Farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in the market.
A march led by "General" Jacob Coxey, a wealthy quarry owner from Ohio. Starting Easter Sunday 1984, Coxey, accompanied by his wife and infant son, Legal Tender Coxey, led 500 unemployed men, women, and children from OH to Washington. Supported a public works program of road building.
Crop Lien System
A credit system that became widely used by cotton farmers in the United States in the South from the 1860s to the 1930s. Sharecroppers and tenant farmers who did not own the land they worked obtained supplies and food on credit from local merchants.
Cross of Gold
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
Dawes Severalty Act
The Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887), adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy.
An area with a much higher concentration of a particular ethnic or cultural group that doesn't dominate in the general population.
Eugene v debs/in re debs
Eugene Victor "Gene" Debs was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World, and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.
Grassroots movements that attempted to address the plight of farmers in the late 1800s; attempted to regulate railroads and enlarge opportunity for credit.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer, and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed.
Frederick Jackson Turner; frontier thesis
The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 that American democracy was formed by the American frontier.
Ghost Dance Movement
The Ghost Dance originated among the Paiute Indians around 1870. However, the tide of the movement came in 1889 with a Paiute shaman Wovoka (Jack Wilson). Wovoka had a vision during a sun eclipse in 1889.
The late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900. Term derived from writer Mark Twain's 1873 The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding of economic progress.
Gospel of Wealth
Late 19th-century movement Protestant movement preaching that all true Christians should be concerned with the plight of immigrants and other poor residents of American cities and should financially support efforts to improve lives of these poor urban dwellers. Settlement houses were often financed by funds raised by ministers of this movement.
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
Regulated interstate commerce unconstitutional.
The Greenback party (also called the National Greenback party) was organized in 1876 to campaign for expansion of the supply of paper money—"greenbacks"—first issued by the federal government in 1862 to help pay for the Civil War. The idea that maintaining a flexible supply of paper money served the interests of working people, whereas paper money backed by specie (hard money, like gold or silver) benefited only the rich, had been advanced by Edward Kellogg as early as 1841.
Labor dispute in Chicago that ended with a bomb being thrown at police resulting in many deaths. Led to an unfavorable public opinion of organized labor.
Signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862, the Homestead Act encouraged Western migration by providing settlers 160 acres of public land. In exchange, homesteaders paid a small filing fee and were required to complete five years of continuous residence before receiving ownership of the land.
Industrial lockouts and strikes that showed battle between corporations and labor unions. Ended with government intervention on the side of big business.
Strategy to maximize profits by attempting to purchase competing companies in the same industry; monopoly-building (ex. Rockefeller's Standard Oil)
Indian Wars (Sand Creek Massacre)
Multiple conflicts between the US government and natives over land. The Sand Creek massacre was a massacre in the American Indian Wars that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 675-man force of Colorado U.S. Volunteer Cavalry attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne natives.
Interstate Commerce Act
Created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to regulate railroads to be fairer to farmers; first legislation to regulate corporations; ineffective because government failed to enforce it.
A pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. She created the first Hull House. Co-winner of 1931 Nobel Peace Prize.
A type of music featuring melodies with shifting accents over a steady, marching-band beat; originated among black musicians in the south and midwest in the 1880s.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks and whites.
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons".
Knights of Labor
American labor organization in the 1880s led by Terence V. Powderly. Organized a wide range of workers, including skilled and unskilled, and had broad reform goals.
A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote.
Little Big Horn
The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass and commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army.
A utopian novel, published in 1888, it described the experiences of a young Bostonian who went into a hypnotic sleep in 1887 and awoke in 2000, finding a new social order in which want, politics and vice were unknown. The society had emerged through peace and evolution, and all of the trusts of the 1800/2019s joined together form one government controlled trust.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher and lecturer.
The mingling of diverse ethnic groups in America, including the idea that these groups are or should be "melting" into a single culture or people.
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers.
Grassroots movements that attempted to address the plight of farmers in the late 1800s; attempted to regulate railroads and enlarge opportunity for credit; evolved into Populist movement. (same concepts as the farmers alliances).
Process of assimilating immigrants into American culture by teaching English, American history, and citizenship.
Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe such as Poland, Italy, etc. that arrived in the US in the latter half of the 19th century.
After the Civil War, southerners promoted a new vision for a self-sufficient southern economy built on modern capitalist values, industrial growth, and improved transportation. In reality, this growth was fairly slow.
Immigrants that came from predominantly western Europe such as Britain, Germany, Spain, and France. (ie. the original colonizers).
the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
A person who controls a unit of a political party, although he/she may not hold political office.
Standardized an exam for federal employees so that people were awarded jobs on merit rather than political affiliations; also made it illegal to remove federal employees without just cause.
A political strategy meant to help boost the candidate in ratings and social appeal.
Plessy v Ferguson
Legalized racial segregation in publicly owned facilities on the basis of "separate but equal."
Unofficial political organization that works to win elections in order to exercise power; sometimes referred to as a shadow government; rose to power in the late 1800s because of ill-equipped local governments that failed to meet the needs of growing urban populations.
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote.
Progress and Poverty
Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth.
Protestant Work Ethic
The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic is a concept in theology, sociology, economics and history which emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith, particularly Calvinism.
Industrial lockouts and strikes that showed battle between corporations and labor unions.
Refers to industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying employees low wages.
Wealthy owner of Standard Oil Company. Considered to be a robber baron who used ruthless tactics to eliminate other businesses.
Samuel Gompers was an English-born, American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history.
The refusal by an employer to allow employees to work unless they agree to his or her terms.
Second Industrial Revolution
Period characterized by the rapid social and economic changes in manufacturing and agriculture that occurred in England during the late 18th century and rapidly diffused to other parts of the developed world. In the US, this occurred during the period roughly 1825-1925.
An institution in an inner-city area providing educational, recreational, and other social services to the community.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Outlawed monopolistic business practices; not effective initially without a strong progressive federal government that would enforce it.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
In 1890, an act was passed so that the treasury would by 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and pay those who mined it in notes that were redeemable in either gold or silver.
Term coined in the late 19th century to describe the idea that humans, like animals and plants, compete in a struggle for existence in which natural selection results in "survival of the fittest."
Social Gospel Movement
A social reform movement that developed within religious institutions and sought to apply the teachings of Jesus directly to society.
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party. Between stalwarts and Mugwumps were the Halfbreeds, who were less patronage-oriented than the Stalwarts, but not as reform-minded as the Mugwumps.
An outlying district of a city, especially a residential one. Where most middle class residents live.
A multi-dwelling building, often poor or overcrowded.
A railroad that would cross the continent and connect the East to the West; opened new markets and helped spur the Industrial Revolution.
Movement of people from rural communities and settlements to big cities.
A railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
Strategy to maximize profits by attempting to own every step of the manufacturing process (ex. Carnegie Steel).
Opposed Booker T. Washington. Wanted social and political integration as well as higher education for 10% of African Americans-what he called a "Talented Tenth". Founder of the Niagara Movement which led to the creation of the NAACP.
Have work that is performed in an office, cubicle, or other administrative setting.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic presidential hopeful that was a member of the Populist Party; free silver advocate; "Do not crucify mankind on a cross of gold".
William Randolph Hearst
an American newspaper publisher who built the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company Hearst Communications
Occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota.
Intense or irrational dislike or fear of people from other countries.
A contract between a worker and an employer in which the worker agrees not to remain in or join a union.
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