APES Chapter 13
Terms in this set (47)
giant multinational corportations increasingly growing, processing, distributing, and sale of food in the US and in the global marketplace
the worlds genetic variety of animals and plants used to provide food
agroforestry (alley cropping)
Planting trees and crops together.
Dung and urine of animals used as a form of organic fertilizer.
raising fish and shellfish for food instead of going out and hunting and gathering them
chronic undernutrition (hunger)
Suffered when people cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs.
commercial inorganic fertilizer
Commercially prepared mixture of plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates and potassium applied to the soil to restore fertility and increase crop yields.
Partially decomposed organic plant and animal matter used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer.
Crop cultivation in which the soil is disturbed little or not at all in an effort to reduce soil erosion, lower labor costs and save energy.
Plowing and planting across the changing slope of land, rather than in straight lines, to help retain water and reduce soil erosion.
Planting different crops into a field from year to year to reduce soil nutrient depletion.
Conversion of rangeland, rain-fed cropland or irrigated cropland to desert-like land, with a drop in agricultural productivity of 10% or more. It usually is caused by a combination of overgrazing, soil erosion, prolonged drought and climate change.
in the 1930s when all the topsoil was blown off the land of states in the middle of the country causing people to mass migrate.
Widespread malnutrition and starvation in a particular area because of a shortage of food, usually caused by a natural disaster or other catastrophic event.
Form of aquaculture in which fish are cultivated in a controlled pond or other environment and harvested when they reach the desired size.
Form of aquaculture in which members of a fish species such as salmon are held in captivity for the first few years of their lives, released and then harvested as adults when they return from the ocean to their freshwater birthplace to spawn.
Concentrations of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water.
The term for when every person in a given area has daily access to enough nutritious food to have an active and healthy life.
Freshly cut or still-growing green vegetation that is plowed into the soil to increase the organic matter and humus available to support crop growth.
Popular term for the introduction of scientifically bred or selected varieties of grain that, with adequate inputs of fertilizer and water, can greatly increase crop yields.
Occurs when rivulets of fast-flowing water join together to cut wider and deeper ditches or gullies.
Using large inputs of energy from fossil fuels, water, fertilizer and pesticides to produce large quantities of rops and livestock for domestic and foreign sale.
integrated pest management
Combined use of biological, chemical and cultivation methods in proper sequence and timing to keep the size of a pest population below the size that causes economically unacceptable loss of a crop or livestock animals.
Growing two or more different crops at the same time on a plot.
Simultaneously growing a variety of crops on the same plot.
mad cow disease
when cows feed on leftover slaughter meat this can lead to the formation of certain proteins that destroy the normal proteins in the brains of cattle
Faulty nutrition, caused by a diet that does not supply an individual with enough nutrients.
Cultivation of a single crop, usually on a large area of land.
Organic material such as animal manure, green manure and compost, applied to cropland as a source of plant nutrients.
Diet so high in bad stuff and so low in good stuff that the consumer might get diabetes, heart stuff and other stuff.
How long a pollutant stays in the air, water, soil or body.
Unwanted organism that directly or indirectly interferes with human activities.
Any chemical designed to kill or inhibit the growth of an organism that people consider undesirable.
Growing specialized crops such as bananas, coffee and cacao in tropical developing countries, primarily for sale to developed countries.
Complex form of intercropping in which a large number of different plants that mature at different times are planted together.
Planting a plot of land with several varieties of the same crop.
Occurs when fast-flowing little rivulets of surface water make small channels in the soil.
Accumulation of salts in soil that can eventually make the soil unable to support plant growth.
Occurs when surface water or wind peel off fairly thin sheets or layers of soil.
Methods used to reduce soil erosion, prevent depletion of soil nutrients and restore nutrients previously lost by erosion, leaching and excessive crop harvesting.
Movement of soil components, especially topsoil, from one place to another, usually by wind or water. Can be greatly accelerated by human activities that remove vegetation from soil.
Planting regular crops and close-growing plants, such as hay or nitrogen-fixing legumes, in alternating rows or bands to help reduce depletion of soil nutrients.
Planting crops on a long, steep slope that has been converted into a series of broad, nearly level terraces with short vertical drops from one to another that run along the contour of the land to retain water and reduce soil erosion.
traditional intensive agriculture
Production of enough food for a farm family's survival and perhaps a surplus that can be sold. Uses more labor, fertilizer and water than traditional subsistence agriculture.
traditional subsistence agriculture
Production of enough crops or livestock for a farm family's survival and, in good years, a surplus to sell or put aside for hard times.
Saturation of soil with irrigation water or excessive precipitation so that the water table rises close to the surface.
Row of trees or hedges planted to partially block wind flow and reduce soil erosion on cultivated land.
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