the application of new agricultural techniques that allowed for a large increase in productivity in the eighteenth century.
an infectious epidemic disease common in many urban areas during the nineteenth century; concern about the disease and the filthy conditions that helped it spread led to public health measures.
a system of textile manufacturing in which spinners and weavers worked at home in their cottages using raw materials supplied to them by capitalist entrepreneurs.
one who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk in a business venture in the expectation of making a profit.
joint-stock investment bank
a bank created by selling shares of stock to investors. Such banks potentially have access to much more capital than do private banks owned by one or a few individuals.
duties (taxes) imposed on imported goods; usually imposed both to raise revenue and to discourage imports and protect domestic industries.