the property of soil determined by proportions of sand, silt, and clay.
Cation exchange capacity
the ability of a particular soil to absorb and release cations.
Base-richness in ecology is the level in water or soil of chemical bases, such as calcium or magnesium ions. Many organisms are restricted to base-rich environments. Chemical bases are alkalis, and so base-rich environments are neutral or alkaline.
Soil pH or soil reaction is an indication of the acidity or alkalinity of soil and is measured in pH units. Soil pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with pH 7 as the neutral point.
the proportion of soil bases to soil acids, expressed as a percentage.
the loss of some or all of a soil's ability to sustain plant growth.
the average concentration of an element in the crust of the Earth.
a concentrated accumulation of minerals from which economically valuable materials can be extracted.
an element that can conduct electricity and heat energy.
resource that can be economically recovered.
the removal of strips of soil and rock to remove ore.
mining spoils (tailings)
unwanted waste material
uses a large pit or hole in the ground.
they blow off the top of the mountain top to get to the inside.
mining of river sediments,
mining techniques when the desired resource is more than 100 m below surface of Earth.