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Process by which sperm from one flower's pollen fertilizes the eggs in a flower of a different plant
Descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that appears to be the only one affecting a trait
Descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that does not appear to affect a trait
Mating of an individual of unknown genotype but dominant phenotype with a homozygous recessive individual
A condition that occurs in hermaphroditic organisms where the two gametes fused in fertilization come from the same individual
Bred from members of a recognized breed, strain, or kind without admixture of other blood over many generations
Egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single set of chromosomes, one from each homologous pair
Any cell that partakes in forming the body of an organism, with the exception of the sperm and egg cells.
Rule of Multiplication
A statistical rule stating that the probability of two independent events occuring together is the product of their individual probabilities
Rule of Addition
A statistical rule stating that the probability of either of two indpendent (and mutually exclusive) events ocuring is the sum of their individual probabilities minus the probability of them both occuring together
First Filial Generation
The first generation of offspring resulting from a cross of two parent organisms, abbreviated the F1 generation
Second Filial Generation
The offspring that grow from the seeds resulting from a cross of First Filial Generation parent organisms, abbreviated the F2 generation
Individual who has one copy of the allele for a recessive disorder and does not exhibit symptoms
Principle of Segregation
The two alleles for a character segregate during the formation of gametes. The union of gametes during fertilization reforms allele pairs in the offspring
Principle of Dominance
When only one of the two different alleles in a heterozygous individual appears to affect the trait, that allele is called the dominant allele. And in such cases, the other allele that does not appear to affect the trait is called the recessive allele. In this book, a capital letter is used to represent the name of a dominant allele (in the flower color example, P). The lowercase version of the same letter is used to represent the recessive allele (p)
Principle of Independent Assortment
This principle states that during gamete formation in an F2 cross, a particular allele for one character can be paired with either allele of another character. For instance, in the above example, R can end up with either Y or y, and r can end up with either Y or y. The alleles for different genes are sorted into the gametes independently of one another
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