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35 terms

Chapter Ten Vocabulary, Part One

Leitner Chapter Ten Vocabulary, Part One
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Genetics
Study of heredity
Trait
Variation of a particular inherited character
Cross-fertilization
Process by which sperm from one flower's pollen fertilizes the eggs in a flower of a different plant
Hybrid
Offspring of two different true-breeding varieties
Monohybrid Cross
Mating of two organisms that differ in only one character
Allele
Alternative form of a gene
Homozygous
Having identical alleles for a gene
Heterozygous
Having different alleles for a gene
Dominant
Descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that appears to be the only one affecting a trait
Recessive
Descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that does not appear to affect a trait
Punnett square
Diagram showing the probabilities of the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
Phenotype
Observable traits of an organism
Genotype
Genetic makeup of an organism; an organism's combination of alleles
Testcross
Mating of an individual of unknown genotype but dominant phenotype with a homozygous recessive individual
Dihybrid Cross
Mating of two organisms that differ in two characters
Self-fertilization
A condition that occurs in hermaphroditic organisms where the two gametes fused in fertilization come from the same individual
Purebred
Bred from members of a recognized breed, strain, or kind without admixture of other blood over many generations
Gamete
Egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single set of chromosomes, one from each homologous pair
Gene
Unit of inherited information in DNA
Somatic Cells
Any cell that partakes in forming the body of an organism, with the exception of the sperm and egg cells.
Diploid
Having two homologous sets of chromosomes
Haploid
Having a single set of chromosomes
Homologous Chromosome
One of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent
Probability
A strong likelihood or chance of something
Rule of Multiplication
A statistical rule stating that the probability of two independent events occuring together is the product of their individual probabilities
Rule of Addition
A statistical rule stating that the probability of either of two indpendent (and mutually exclusive) events ocuring is the sum of their individual probabilities minus the probability of them both occuring together
Pedigree
Family tree that records and traces the occurrence of a trait in a family
Parental Generation
True-breeding parents with which experiment started
First Filial Generation
The first generation of offspring resulting from a cross of two parent organisms, abbreviated the F1 generation
Second Filial Generation
The offspring that grow from the seeds resulting from a cross of First Filial Generation parent organisms, abbreviated the F2 generation
Carrier
Individual who has one copy of the allele for a recessive disorder and does not exhibit symptoms
Principle of Segregation
The two alleles for a character segregate during the formation of gametes. The union of gametes during fertilization reforms allele pairs in the offspring
Principle of Dominance
When only one of the two different alleles in a heterozygous individual appears to affect the trait, that allele is called the dominant allele. And in such cases, the other allele that does not appear to affect the trait is called the recessive allele. In this book, a capital letter is used to represent the name of a dominant allele (in the flower color example, P). The lowercase version of the same letter is used to represent the recessive allele (p)
Principle of Independent Assortment
This principle states that during gamete formation in an F2 cross, a particular allele for one character can be paired with either allele of another character. For instance, in the above example, R can end up with either Y or y, and r can end up with either Y or y. The alleles for different genes are sorted into the gametes independently of one another
Mendel's Laws
• Unit character-traits controlled by factors (genes) which occur in pairs
• Principe of Dominance
• Principe of Segregation
• Principle Independent Assortment