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55 terms

sociology

STUDY
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Sociology
the study of human society
Social Imagination
Situates life with broader social forces(Connecting ones personal experiences with society)
Social institution
Social positions connected to social relations to perform a social role
social identity
the way that an individual identifies themselves in a group
Comte
beleived in "social physics" that discovering logic or of set of laws to explain how society works
Karl Max
beleived in "historical materialism" conflicts between classes drive social change
weber
To understand why people act the way that they do we must attach the meanings people attach to their actions
interpretive sociology
the study of social meaning
Durkheim
examines how social cohesion is mantained or not maintanined, divisions of labor influences how we relate to eachother.
Functionalism
the idea that society functions like a body, has muliple parts that serve specific roles for societys survival
conflict
conflict between competing interests in the basic force of social change and society
symbol interactionism
shared meaning, orientation, and assumptions motivate actions
postmodernism
shared meaning have eroded an, replaced multiple and often conflicitin identities
social construction
an institutionalized entity or artifact that is invented by participants in a particular culture that exsists because people belive that is exsists.
nomethic approch
not concerned with uniquness phenomena rather concerned with commonalities that can be abstracted acrosscases
microsociology
seeks to understand locall interactional contexts, ethnographic usually contaning obervation and in depth interview
macrosociology
social dynamics at a higher level of analysis
research methods
standard rules that scientists use to establish relationship between social elements.
quantatative method
seeks information in numerical form
qualatative method
seeking information but cant put in numerical form. observing, writting down summerizing.
deductive approach
starts off with a theory, makes imperical observations, then cofirms the original theory.
Inductive reasoning
Starts with emperical observations then forms a theory.
correlation
change between two things sumultaneously.
casuality
change in one factor results in a change in another factor.
requirements for causuality
correlation, time order, rule out spuriousness
independant variable
a measured factor that the researcher beleives has impact on the dependant variable
dependant
the outcome or what changed that the researcher was expecting
hypothesis
educated guess
operationalization
researcher specializes the methods and terms that will be used in the study
participant study
method that seeks to observe social actions in practice.
survey
an ordered seies of questions inteded to elicit information from respondants
historical methods
data that collects information from newspapers, reports, newspaper articles, journals, and diaries.. etc
comparitive research
comparing two or more entities such as countries
audit study
people are observed in a specific situation to see if they fare differently.
content analysis
systematic analysis of content rather than structure of communication such as written work, speech or film.
spurious
false or misleading
Validity
the extent to which an instrument mesure what it is inteded to measure
reliability
consistant results using the same measure
reflexibility
analyzing our own role in and affect on our research
generalizability
the extent to which we can claim that our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied
white coat effect
people will alter their behavior wen they know their being observed.
zimbaros research
one social role in the prison influences wether people would be aggressive or passive.
functions of education
teaching basic skills such ass reading and writing and well as specific skills needed for the workplace.
illiteracy
insufficient skills to read and write
innumeracy
insufficient math skills
human capitol
knowledge and skills that makes a person more pruductive.
social capitol
any relationship between people that can facilitate the actions of others.
cultural capitol
culural and social recources that people use to their advantage in variouse situations.
hidden curiculum
the nonacademic socialization and training that takes place in the schooling system.
conflict with education
growth of education fueled by competition for a few good jobs, and encouraged by employers who gain well-trained (over trained employees willing to work for less money.
credentials
an over emphasis on credentials (college degrees) for signaling social status or qualifications.
tracking
a way of dividng students into different classes by ability or future plans.
pygmalion effecct
process that occurs when behavior is modified to meet preexisting expectations.
ses
an individuals position in stratified social order
stereotype threat
when minority students feel such pessure to break the stereotypes that confront them that they perform worse due to stress and anxiety