42 terms

BJU Science 4 Ch. 9

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Terms in this set (...)

Abrasion
Water or wind gradually wears away rock by friction
Avalanche
A sudden downhill movement of snow and ice
Bedrock
The solid, unweathered rock under the layers of soil
Delta
An area of sediment formed at the mouth of a river
Deposited sediment makes the mouth of a river
Shallower
Deposition
Occurs when wind, water, or ice drop weathered material in a new location
Erosion
The movement of weathered material from from one place to another
Erosion can happen
Slowly or quickly
Erosion can be caused by
Water, wind, or ice
Frost weathering
the process of water in and around rocks and soil freezing and expanding, breaking up the rocks
Glacier
A huge river of ice that moves slowly downhill
Glaciers can cause
Hills called Moraines & valleys where ponds and lakes form
Glaciers can pick up
Sediment & rocks
Gravity
The force that causes glaciers to move downhill
Gravity causes water to flow
Downhill
How can a glacier change the surface of the earth
Forms ponds & lakes, Carries rocks & sediment, Forms small hills, Smooths & polishes rocks
Humus
Decayed plant & animal material
Land forms
Shapes of land, such as mountains and dunes
Landslide
A sudden downhill movement of soil and rocks
Many landforms are a result of
Upward forces that wear away the earth's surface
Moraine
A small hill formed by a glacier
Most changes on the surface of the earth happen how
Slowly
Sediment
Small bits of weathered rock and other material
Soil is made up of
weathered rock, water, air, and humus
Soil creep
The slow downhill movement of soil and rocks
Soil is made of
Weathered rock, air, & humus
Subsoil
The layer that is mostly coarse, weathered rocks without humus
The 3 sizes of weathered rock found in soil are
Sand, silt, and clay
The surface of the earth is always
Changing
Top soil
The layer of soil needed for many plants to grow
U-shaped valley
A landform carved by a glacier that moves between mountains, causing ponds and lakes to form
Volcanoes and earthquakes can push land how
Upward
Water & wind can easily erode
Top soil
Water erosion
Can cause canyons and gorges
Weathering
The process of breaking down and changing rocks
Weathering
Wears away the earth's surface
Weathering occurs when wind, water, or plants do what
Breakdown or change rocks
What force affects erosion
Gravity
What ways do man's activities affect how much erosion occurs
Removing plants, Construction, Paving
Wind erosion
Can cause hills called dunes
Two kinds of sudden erosion caused by gravity
landslides and avalanches
How can a volcano form an island?
During an eruption, lava and rocks are forced out of the earth. They pile up, cool, and form mountains or islands in the middle of lakes.