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Terms for Kirby History 10.

State of Nature

Theoretical state of no government

Law of Nature

Precept that no man can be safe in the state of nature, so one should avoid it by forming a government.


English philosopher; published Leviathan in 1651, on conclusion of the English Civil War. Born to an obscure family in 1588, received an Oxford education, placed in a wealthy family as a tutor. Fled England in 1641, suspected as being a royalist.


English philosopher/Enlightenment thinker who wrote The Second Treatise of Government. Lived from 1632-1704, Father was a parliamentary cavalry officer during the Civil War, also educated at Oxford. Had to flee England because he was suspected to be involved with a plot to assassinate Charles II in 1683. Also wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

First Estate

Part of the Anciéne Regime • This was the clergy, mainly religious people who own churches. Dominated by nobles. Total population, less than 100,000 of 29 million. Owned 10-12% of French land and pay no taxes. (Only by contribution).

Second Estate

The Nobility (Nobles of the sword, ancient and based on military service, and Nobles of the Robe, wealthy townsfolk that were ennobled). Total population about 400,000 people. Own about 25-30% of France.

Third Estate

Everybody else (peasant-dominated). Lead by bourgouis, wealthy lawyers, merchants, and business people. All of French taxes only apply to them, but were always outnumbered in the vote. End up leading revolution.

Estates General

fter trying to call the Assembly of Notables and Assembly of Clergy, both of which refused, the Estates General was called in May 1788. It was a meeting of the 3 estates. Hadn't been called since 1616 (Over 170 years). Established the One National Assembly, where the voting is done by head, not by estate.

Tennis Court Oath

After the Third Estate got locked out of their meeting place, they reconvened on a tennis court. Voted to disobey the king, because the nation is more powerful than the King. Louis admits defeat on June 27.

Jacque-Louis David

French painter during the Revolution; used art to convey political views; a friend of Robespierre, imprisoned when he was executed, and later allied with Napoleon.

King Louis XVI

King of France during Revolution - executed by guillotine

Bastille Day

Holiday in France celebrating the storming of the Paris bastille in 1789

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. Some rights include:Men are born and remain free and equal in rights; social distinctions may be based only upon general usefulness
The aim of every political association is in the preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of man; these rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
THe source of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation; no group, no individual may exercise authority not emanating expressly therefrom.


love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it


The national currency used during the French Revolution. Part of the "equality" spree.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.

March on Versailles

It began as a bread riot, a group of women who didn't really know what they were fighting for. They ransacked the armory and marched 6 hours to Versailles, The next day, mobs broke out and killed some guards, sending the King and Queen back to Paris (by force).

Brunswick Manifesto

Austria and Prussia's declaration that there would be retribution if any harm came to the French king (Louis XVI)

Levée en Masse

Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army;

Marie Antoinette

queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular due to her extravagant lifestyle. Might have been somewhat oblivious to the situation before her execution.


a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles

Committee of Public Safety

Political body of the French Revolution that controlled France during the Reign of Terror; Robespierre was a leader of it. Members were extreme Jacobins, and had enemies guillotined.

Cult of the Supreme Being

A religion devised by Maximilien Robespierre, intended to become the state religion after the French Revolution


A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.


Agreement between Pope and Napoleon: Napoleon recognized Catholocism as the religion of the majority of France, Pope does not ask for any land back seized during the Revolution

Napoleonic Code

This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy

Louisiana Purchase

The U.S. purchased this land in 1803 from France under Napoleon. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had made him dislike the idea of New World colonies.


A Napoleon naval defeat; this defeat was more crucial than all his victories on land. Britain defeated both Spanish and French fleets in this battle.

Continental System

Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.


Part of Napoleon's Hundred Days, in which he waged battle against the seventh coalition (which comprised of almost all of Europe at the time) and lost, in 1815. He then got banished to St. Helena.


The tiny island that Napoleon was first exiled to. Off the coast of Italy in the Mediterranean sea.


Former French colony; called Saint Domingue; used as a sugar plantation where African slaves were forced to perform back-breaking labor. Inspired by the French Revolution, declared independence under leader Toussaint L'Ouverture.

St. Helena

Place of napoleons second/last exile and death after his Hundred Day Parade on the coast of West Africa; he died there.

Toussaint L'Overture

Leader of Haitian Revolution; ex-slave. Led the slave rebellion.

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