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Chapter 1 Stats
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Terms in this set (21)
Statistics
science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data
Variable
characteristic or attribute that can assume different values
Data
values (measurements or observations) that the variables can assume
Random variables
variables whose values are determined by chance
Data set
collection of data values
Data value/Datum
each value in the data set
Descriptive statistic
consists of the collection, organization, summarization, and presentation of data
Inferential statistic
consists of generalizing from samples to populations, performing estimations and hypothesis tests, determining relationships among variables, and making predictions
Probability
chance of an event occurring
Population
consists of all subjects (human or otherwise) that are being studied
Sample
a group of subjects selected from a population
Hypothesis testing
decision-making process for evaluating claims about a population, based on information obtained from samples
qualitative variables
variables that can be placed on distinct categories, according to some characteristic or attribute (gender, religious preference, geographic locations, etc.)
Quantitative variables
numerical and can be ordered and ranked (age, heights, weights, body temperature, etc.)
Discrete variables
assume values that can be counted (number of children in a family, students in a classroom, number of call received by a switchboard)
Continuous variables
can assume an infinite number of values between any two specific values. They often include fractions and decimals
Measurement scales
how variables are categorized, counted, or measured
nominal
classifies data into mutually exclusive (non overlapping) categories in which no order or ranking can be imposed on the data (subject taught, gender, zip code, etc)
ordinal
classifies data into categories that can be ranked; however, precise differences between the ranks do not exist (student evaluations, guest speakers, (small, medium, or large), (poor, fair, good), (first, second, third))
interval
ranks data, and precise differences between units of measure do exist; there is no meaningful zero (IQ, temperature)
ratio
possess all the characteristics
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