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63 terms

Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System

should help you pass, it has some stuff that MIGHT be used. - Created by Nas Ibrahim (Galvan's anatomy student)
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List the functions of the digestive system
breakdown of ingested food, absorption of nutrients into the blood
Alimentary canal consists of:
mouth, phaynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, anus
List the accesory organs of the digestive system:
pancreas, teeth, liver, salivary glands, gallbladder
Starting from the deepest layer and moving towards the most superficial, the layers of the wall of the GI tract are:
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
The serosa is actually:
visceral peritoneum
gastrointestinal tract is also called
alimentary canal
The crown of the tooth is covered with:
enamel
swallowing moves a mass of food called
Bolus
controls the opening in the stomach to the small intestine?
Pyloric sphincter
order of small intestine divisions starting proximal to the stomach
Duodeum, Jejunum, ileum
Carbohydrate absorption begins in the mouth via the enzume amylase
False
Rugae
internal folds in the stomach
Stomach
food enters at the cardioesophageal sphincter,
acts as a storage tank for food,
delivers chime (processed food) to the small intestine
Salivary glands
Saliva-producing glands
Parotid glands- anterior to the ears
submandibular glands
sublingual glands
Teeth
the role is to masticate food, humans have 2 sets of teeth, decidous and adult with 32 teeth ( ages 6-12 years), incisors, canines, premolars, molars
Peristalsis
alternating waves of contraction
Segmentation
moving materials back and forth to aid in mixing
Mechanical Digestion
mixing of food in the mouth by the tongue, churning food in the stomach, segmentation in the small intestine
Chemical Digestion
enzymes break down food materials into their building blocks carbohydrates broken into simple sugars
protein broken into amino acids
fats broken into fatty acids
Defecation
elimination of digestible substances as feces,
Metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions in the body
the tissue layers of the GI tract are constant, with no variation in the different organs.
false
the folds in the lining of the stomach are called rugae.
true
the cardiac sphincter controls the opening of the esophagus into the stomach.
true
small intestine aborption
plicae, villi, microvilli
the terminal inch of the rectum is called the
anal canal
the lesser omentum attaches the :
the Liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach
the liver consists of two lobes separated by the falciform ligament.
true
where is bile stored
gallbladder
refers to the liver
hepatic
The volume of saliva secreted per day is:
1liter
Another name for the third molar is:
wisdom tooth
after food has been chewed, it is formed into a small founded mass called a:
bolus
the largest gland in the body is the :
liver
the function of the appendix is uncertain
true
the esophagus is voluntary in the upper third, mixed in the middle, and involuntary in the lower third.
true
the mesentery is fan-shaped projection of the parietal peritoneum
true
which of the following describes the pharyngeal stage of deglutition?
oropharynx to esophagus
Which step of deglutition is under voluntary control?
oral
The final produce of carbohydrate digestion is a:
monosaccharide
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of proteins are:
proteases
The process of fat emulsficication consists of:
breaking down fats into small droplets
peristalsis can be described as a mixing movement.
false
the volumes of stomach and duodenum are approximately equal.
false
olfactory and visual stimuli are factors concerning the control of digestive gland secretion
true
chyme is liquefied food found in the stomach.
true
fats are absorbed primarily into which of the following structures?
lymph in intestinal lacteals
movement of lower colon and rectum contents at a rate slower than normal can cause:
constipation
which blood vessel carries absorbed nutrients from the GI tact to the liver?
portal vein
the majority of substance are absorbed in the small intestine
true
process of taking food into the GI tract
ingestion
food leaving the stomach
chyme
mixing movement
segmentation
expelling feces
defecation
fat droplet surrounded by bile salts
micelles
during the process of digestion, stored bile is poured into the duodenum by which of the flowing?
gallbladder
protein digestion begins in the:
stomach.
the enzyme pepsin is concerned primarily with the difgestion of which of the following?
proteins
the enzyme amylase converts which of the following?
starches to sugars
which one is not part of the small intestine?
colon
The union of the cystic duct and hepatic duct from the :
common bile duct.
the process of swallowing is known as:
degultition
Peristalsis begins in the:
esophagus