compounds in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning
that part of the energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system.
Organisms that create their own sugar
Process in which an organism creates their own food
photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms that harness light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2
synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water
(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
Also called an autotroph, capable of producing.
Eg: fungi Breaks down substance to ingest.
Nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
of or relating to living organisms
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
places where animals or plants naturally live and grow
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
"Disorder", low forms of energy, chaos
First law of thermodynamics
The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
Law of conservation of energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
Second law of thermodynamics
when energy is converted ==> some energy lost, usually through heat
Natural catalysts, usually proteins
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not used up itself or permanently changed
The site in which a substrate binds with an enzyme to generate a reaction
the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
the combination of parts to make a whole
Break down of something
a chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes, forming rust
Unstable source of energy. Contains great amounts within its bonds
the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body
process in which food is broken down outside the cells in a digestive tract, The joining of food vacuoles and lysosomes to allow chemical digestion to occur within the cytoplasm of a cell.
small cavity in the cytoplasm of organisms that store food temporarily
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
digestive chamber with a single opening, in which cnidarians, flatworms, and echinoderms digest food "IMMA THROW MY DIGESTIVE SYSTEM AT YOU WRAHHH!" -good luck forgetting it now
An enzyme in some microorganisms that breaks down cellulose; it is not found in most mammals. This is why we can't digest cellulose fiber
in earthworms, part of the digestive system in which food is ground into smaller pieces; in birds, a muscular organ that helps in the mechanical breakdown of food
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity
stores and concentrates bile
the part of the large intestine that ascends from the cecum to the transverse colon
the part of the large intestine that extends across the abdominal cavity and joins the ascending to the descending colon
the part of the large intestine that descends from the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon
large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food El estomago
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
organ that completes the chemical digestion of food and reabsorbs all nutrients
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated I mean there's the anus but whatever
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
Controls passage of food from stomach to small intestine
hormone produced in the stomach wall that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice
Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach
liquid mixture of food and stomach fluids released from the stomach into the small intestine this rhymes with thyme! and rhymes with rhyme as well!
a substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles
a lymph tubule located in the villus that absorbs fatty acids
undigested food material and other waste products that exit the body through the anus
A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.
stimulates contraction of the gallbladder which releases bile, stimulates the pancreas to secrete enzymes to help break down fat
Earthworms move like this hint hint segments hint hint movements
the large intestine:
the maintenance of a stable internal environment
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes basically, how we achieve homeostasis
the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance
organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
filtering units of the kidney that remove wastes from the blood and produce urine
process by which a liquid or gas passes through a filter to remove wastes
process in the kidney that puts useful substances (water, glucose, amino acids) back into the blood
The release of biosynthesized substances
consisting of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance
a fluid produced by the kidneys that contains water, urea and other waste materials
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor on an enzyme within that pathway
regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland to prevent the kidneys from expelling too much water
A small, very toxic molecule (NH3) produced by nitrogen fixation or as a metabolic waste product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism.
Carries blood from kidney to posterior vena cava
an artery originating from the abdominal aorta and supplying the kidneys and adrenal glands and ureters
land snails, insects, birds, and many reptiles excrete it; is 1,000 times less soluble in water than either ammonia or urea. It can be excreted in a pastelike form with very little loss of water.
Released in response to decreased blood flow or decreased pressure in nephrons.
a group of peptides activated by renin that elevate blood pressure through a variety of mechanisms including increasing arteriolar smooth muscle tone
the smaller, thinner branches of arteries that carry blood to the capillaries
Body system consisting of the heart and blood vessels that circulate blood through the body
A group of organisms that have jointed appendages, an exoskeleton, bilateral symmetry, and reproduce sexually; insects, arachnids, millipedes and cenitpedes, and crustaceans
Open circulatory system
A circulatory system that allows the blood to flow out of the blood vessels and into various body cavities so that the cells are in direct contact with the blood hemocoel
Closed circulatory system
A circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid.
Blood enters heart here
Blood is pumped to where they need to go here No it's not the aorta/pulmonary arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
Blood vessels that bring blood to heart. One way valves help in this.
the complete cycle of events in the heart from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the next
the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels
Red blood cells
white blood cells, or WBC, form in the bone marrow and are part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended
This system's funtions are (1) to transport tissue fluid to the blood vessels, and (2) to protect the body by removing foreign material such as bacteria from the lymphatic stream and by serving as a cite for lymphocytes "policing of body fluids and lymphocyte multiplication. It is a one-way system that carries lymph only towards the heart.
cause to change from a liquid to a solid or thickened state
tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation fragments of megakaryocytes
Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches Yes, vedy important on test
an organism that needs only carbon dioxide as a carbon source but that obtains energy by oxidizing inorganic substances.
photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms that harness light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2 So important it shows up twice here
organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
colored chemical compounds that absorb light
membranous structures within a chloroplast that serve as the site for light harvesting in photosynthesis
stack of thylakoids
semi-fluid portion of chloroplast, light independent reactions occur here
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
photosystems I and II
Two comes before one. Series of actions that depends on light. ATP/NADPH is generated
one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules Well, almost. It just needs one more thing. H.
An electron carrier that provides the high-energy electrons needed to make carbon-hydrogen bonds in the third stage of photosynthesis
Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis cyclic pathway that forms glucose from CO2
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
ribulose biphosphate; a five-carbon carbohydrate that combines with CO2 to form two molecules of PGA in the first step of the Calvin Cylce
The incorporation of carbon from carbon dioxide into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism.
phosphoglycerate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the first step of the Calvin cycle
a three-carbon molecule formed in the second step of the calvin cycle that can leave the cycle and be used to make other organic compounds
light-induced reduction in the photosynthetic capacity of a plant, damage to the light-gathering process in photosynthesis; occurs when a chloroplast has absorbed too much light energy
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, releases carbon dioxide, and decreases photosynthetic output. Photorespiration generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
a protective covering around a leaf vein, consisting of one or more cell layers, usually parenchyma
thin, cellular outer layer of the leaf well, think of skin
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant's photosynthesis
A strand of vascular tissues (both xylem and phloem) in a stem or leaf.
pigments that absorb light in other regions of the spectrum
An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
clusters of chlorophyll within the thylakoid membrane that absorb light energy Yep, it's that important
when light is absorbed, a photon charges up the electrons within the_______. This then releases an electron to run down the ETC
ETC Electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
an alternative pathway that enables certain plants to fix CO2 into four carbon compounds
carbon-based molecules "We are all carbon-based life form! ZZT"
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of are generally some multiple of CH2O. glucose
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis. lactose=glucose+galactose
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules GLUCOSEGLUCOSEGLUCOSEGLUCOSEGLUCOSE TO FORM MEGAGLUCOSE Not really
energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Nonpolar.
Unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids. It contains a long carbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at one end. The two ends of the molecule are hydrophilic and hydrophobic.
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail. Have two, rather than three, fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol. Phosphate head is hydrophilic.
contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. source of energy. needed by tissue for repair and growth. made up of 20 amino acids.
Simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy yeah, you NEVER want this burnt for energy.
chemical bonds that join amino acids together to form polypeptide chains
a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids it's a really long chain of a huge amount...well, not necessarily. chain of amino acids
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
the localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages helix, for example
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
the tendency to repel water; substances that are hydrophobic are nonpolar and cannot hydrogen bond to water
The particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide. well, confusing definition aside, combination of two or more polypeptide subunits.
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein i mean, just one of these set us way different from neanderthals.
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases A, T, C, G
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
ATCG, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
windpipe; tube through which air moves
a flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering
organ that makes bile to break down fats; also filters poisons and drugs out of the blood if you saw this, again...yeah it's that awesome
in mouth, released by salivary glands and begins chemical breakdown of starch
The inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by specialized (chief) cells located in gastric pits of the stomach.
an enzyme from the pancreas that digests proteins in the small intestine
an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
tiny tubes in insect body that deliver oxygen directly to metabolizing tissues
openings on the abdomen and thorax through which air enters and waste gases leave the insect's body
thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place Lol swiss cheese if you smoke
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants. Is it just me or are these things appearing twice. Well, it's a good way to drill them into your mind.
Openings in leaves that regulate the movement of H2O, O2, and CO2
That way your stomata won't keep open forever.
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
cellular respiration that uses oxygen, sequentially releasing energy and storing it in ATP
Lactic acid fermentation
series of anaerobic chemical reactions in which pyruvic acid uses NADH to form lactic acid and NAD+, which is then used in glycolysis; supplies energy when oxygen for aerobic respiration is scarce We need NADH, so we recycle this through_______. Usually happens when you're running. But since most people these days are Rubenesque, this can happen when you climb stairs.
the process by which cells obtain energy from an energy source without using oxygen
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
anaerobic process in which cells convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol; carried out by many bacteria and fungi such as yeasts your beer, sir.
Electron transport system
passage of electrons along a series of membrane-bounded electron carrier molecules from a higher to lower energy level; the energy released is used for the synthesis of ATP
enzyme that combines with an acetyl group to form acetyl CoA
The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme. Because the matrix can't accept pyruvate.
Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end products of glycolysis
Occurs in The Matrix. No, the matrix in the mitochondria. Stage of cellular respiration that finishes the breakdown of pyruvic acid molecules to carbon dioxide, releasing energy. Two ATP produced after all the Acetyl CoA has been cycled.
an iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts
You're almost to the end! This organelle is what's powering you right now!
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
The interior of a mitochondrion (the region bounded by the inner membrane)., The matrix is the site of action of pyruvate dehydroganse complex and the Krebs cycle. lol basically, where the Krebs cycle occurs
an organism that is normally anaerobic but can also grow in the presence of oxygen
If you are this, you CANNOT grow in the presence of oxygen.
You DEPEND on oxygen to survive.
A chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water. Basically, forming something by sucking the water outta them. Congratulations, you completed the course. Now do it again.