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191 terms

Biology Final Terms

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Nutrients
compounds in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning
Chemical energy
that part of the energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction
free energy
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system.
Autotrophs
Organisms that create their own sugar
Photosynthesis
Process in which an organism creates their own food
Photoautotrophs
photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms that harness light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2
Chemosynthesis
synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water
Food web
(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
Producer
Also called an autotroph, capable of producing.
Consumer
Heterotroph.
Decomposer
Eg: fungi
Breaks down substance to ingest.
Abiotic
Nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
Biotic
of or relating to living organisms
Ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
Habitats
places where animals or plants naturally live and grow
Biosphere
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
Entropy
"Disorder", low forms of energy, chaos
First law of thermodynamics
The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
Law of conservation of energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
Second law of thermodynamics
when energy is converted ==> some energy lost, usually through heat
Enzymes
Natural catalysts, usually proteins
Catalysts
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not used up itself or permanently changed
Active site
The site in which a substrate binds with an enzyme to generate a reaction
Substrate
the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
Synthesis
the combination of parts to make a whole
Decomposition
Break down of something
Oxidation
a chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes, forming rust
ATP
Unstable source of energy. Contains great amounts within its bonds
ADP
Adenosine Diphosphate
Digestion
the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body
Intracellular digestion
process in which food is broken down outside the cells in a digestive tract, The joining of food vacuoles and lysosomes to allow chemical digestion to occur within the cytoplasm of a cell.
Food vacuole
small cavity in the cytoplasm of organisms that store food temporarily
Lysosomes
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
Gastrovascular cavity
digestive chamber with a single opening, in which cnidarians, flatworms, and echinoderms digest food
"IMMA THROW MY DIGESTIVE SYSTEM AT YOU WRAHHH!" -good luck forgetting it now
Cellulase
An enzyme in some microorganisms that breaks down cellulose; it is not found in most mammals.
This is why we can't digest cellulose fiber
Gizzard
in earthworms, part of the digestive system in which food is ground into smaller pieces; in birds, a muscular organ that helps in the mechanical breakdown of food
Salivary glands
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
Pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
Esophagus
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
Liver
large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity
Gallbladder
stores and concentrates bile
Ascending colon
the part of the large intestine that ascends from the cecum to the transverse colon
Transverse colon
the part of the large intestine that extends across the abdominal cavity and joins the ascending to the descending colon
Descending colon
the part of the large intestine that descends from the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon
Stomach
large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food
El estomago
Pancreas
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
Small intestine
organ that completes the chemical digestion of food and reabsorbs all nutrients
Rectum
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated
I mean there's the anus but whatever
Larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
Pyloric Sphincter
Controls passage of food from stomach to small intestine
Gastrin
hormone produced in the stomach wall that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice
Pepsin
Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach
Chyme
liquid mixture of food and stomach fluids released from the stomach into the small intestine
this rhymes with thyme!
and rhymes with rhyme as well!
Bile
a substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles
Lacteal
a lymph tubule located in the villus that absorbs fatty acids
Feces
undigested food material and other waste products that exit the body through the anus
Secretin
A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.
Cholecystokinin
stimulates contraction of the gallbladder which releases bile, stimulates the pancreas to secrete enzymes to help break down fat
Segmentation movements
Earthworms move like this
hint hint segments
hint hint movements
Colon
the large intestine:
Homeostasis
the maintenance of a stable internal environment
Metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
basically, how we achieve homeostasis
Excretory System
the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance
Kidney
organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
Nephrons
filtering units of the kidney that remove wastes from the blood and produce urine
Filtration
process by which a liquid or gas passes through a filter to remove wastes
Reabsorption
process in the kidney that puts useful substances (water, glucose, amino acids) back into the blood
Secretion
The release of biosynthesized substances
Urinary System
consisting of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance
Urine
a fluid produced by the kidneys that contains water, urea and other waste materials
Ureter
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
Urinary bladder
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
Urethra
tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
Feedback regulation
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor on an enzyme within that pathway
Aldosterone
regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys
Antidiuretic hormone
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland to prevent the kidneys from expelling too much water
Ammonia
A small, very toxic molecule (NH3) produced by nitrogen fixation or as a metabolic waste product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism.
Renal vein
Carries blood from kidney to posterior vena cava
Renal artery
an artery originating from the abdominal aorta and supplying the kidneys and adrenal glands and ureters
Uric acid
land snails, insects, birds, and many reptiles excrete it; is 1,000 times less soluble in water than either ammonia or urea. It can be excreted in a pastelike form with very little loss of water.
Renin
Released in response to decreased blood flow or decreased pressure in nephrons.
Angiotensins
a group of peptides activated by renin that elevate blood pressure through a variety of mechanisms including increasing arteriolar smooth muscle tone
Arterioles
the smaller, thinner branches of arteries that carry blood to the capillaries
Circulatory system
Body system consisting of the heart and blood vessels that circulate blood through the body
Arthropods
A group of organisms that have jointed appendages, an exoskeleton, bilateral symmetry, and reproduce sexually; insects, arachnids, millipedes and cenitpedes, and crustaceans
Open circulatory system
A circulatory system that allows the blood to flow out of the blood vessels and into various body cavities so that the cells are in direct contact with the blood
hemocoel
Closed circulatory system
A circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid.
atria
Blood enters heart here
ventricle
Blood is pumped to where they need to go here
No it's not the aorta/pulmonary arteries
arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
capillaries
tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
veins
Blood vessels that bring blood to heart. One way valves help in this.
cardiac cycle
the complete cycle of events in the heart from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the next
blood pressure
the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels
Erythrocytes
Red blood cells
Leukocytes
white blood cells, or WBC, form in the bone marrow and are part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
Plasma
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended
Lymphatic system
This system's funtions are (1) to transport tissue fluid to the blood vessels, and (2) to protect the body by removing foreign material such as bacteria from the lymphatic stream and by serving as a cite for lymphocytes "policing of body fluids and lymphocyte multiplication. It is a one-way system that carries lymph only towards the heart.
coagulate
cause to change from a liquid to a solid or thickened state
platelets
tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation
fragments of megakaryocytes
fibrin
Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Yes, vedy important on test
chemoautotrophs
an organism that needs only carbon dioxide as a carbon source but that obtains energy by oxidizing inorganic substances.
photoautotrophs
photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms that harness light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2
So important it shows up twice here
Chloroplasts
organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
pigments
colored chemical compounds that absorb light
thylakoids
membranous structures within a chloroplast that serve as the site for light harvesting in photosynthesis
grana
stack of thylakoids
stroma
semi-fluid portion of chloroplast, light independent reactions occur here
chlorophyll
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
light reactions
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
photosystems I and II
Two comes before one. Series of actions that depends on light. ATP/NADPH is generated
NADP+
one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
Well, almost. It just needs one more thing.
H.
NADPH
An electron carrier that provides the high-energy electrons needed to make carbon-hydrogen bonds in the third stage of photosynthesis
Calvin-Benson Cycle
Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis cyclic pathway that forms glucose from CO2
Rubisco
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
RuBP
ribulose biphosphate; a five-carbon carbohydrate that combines with CO2 to form two molecules of PGA in the first step of the Calvin Cylce
Carbon Fixation
The incorporation of carbon from carbon dioxide into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism.
PGA
phosphoglycerate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the first step of the Calvin cycle
PGAL
a three-carbon molecule formed in the second step of the calvin cycle that can leave the cycle and be used to make other organic compounds
Photoinhibition
light-induced reduction in the photosynthetic capacity of a plant, damage to the light-gathering process in photosynthesis; occurs when a chloroplast has absorbed too much light energy
Photorespiration
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, releases carbon dioxide, and decreases photosynthetic output. Photorespiration generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
Bundle sheath
a protective covering around a leaf vein, consisting of one or more cell layers, usually parenchyma
Epidermis
thin, cellular outer layer of the leaf
well, think of skin
Cuticle
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
Mesophyll
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant's photosynthesis
Vascular bundles
A strand of vascular tissues (both xylem and phloem) in a stem or leaf.
Accessory pigments
pigments that absorb light in other regions of the spectrum
Carotenoids
An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
Photosystems
clusters of chlorophyll within the thylakoid membrane that absorb light energy
Yep, it's that important
Reaction center
when light is absorbed, a photon charges up the electrons within the_______. This then releases an electron to run down the ETC
ETC Electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
Chemiosmosis
in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
C4 pathway
an alternative pathway that enables certain plants to fix CO2 into four carbon compounds
Organic Compounds
carbon-based molecules
"We are all carbon-based life form! ZZT"
Carbohydrates
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
Monosaccharides
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of are generally some multiple of CH2O.
glucose
Disaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
lactose=glucose+galactose
Polysaccharide
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
GLUCOSEGLUCOSEGLUCOSEGLUCOSEGLUCOSE TO FORM MEGAGLUCOSE
Not really
Lipids
energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Nonpolar.
Fatty Acids
Unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids. It contains a long carbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at one end. The two ends of the molecule are hydrophilic and hydrophobic.
Phospholipids
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
Have two, rather than three, fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol. Phosphate head is hydrophilic.
Proteins
contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. source of energy. needed by tissue for repair and growth. made up of 20 amino acids.
Amino Acids
Simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy
yeah, you NEVER want this burnt for energy.
Peptide Bonds
chemical bonds that join amino acids together to form polypeptide chains
Polypeptide
a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids
it's a really long chain of a huge amount...well, not necessarily. chain of amino acids
Primary structure
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
Secondary structure
the localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages
helix, for example
Tertiary structure
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
Hydrophobicity
the tendency to repel water; substances that are hydrophobic are nonpolar and cannot hydrogen bond to water
Quaternary structure
The particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide.
well, confusing definition aside, combination of two or more polypeptide subunits.
Genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
i mean, just one of these set us way different from neanderthals.
Nucleic Acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
Nucleotides
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
A, T, C, G
RNA
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
DNA
ATCG, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
Codons
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
Diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
Concentration Gradient
a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
Trachea
windpipe; tube through which air moves
Epiglottis
a flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering
Liver
organ that makes bile to break down fats; also filters poisons and drugs out of the blood
if you saw this, again...yeah it's that awesome
Salivary Amylase
in mouth, released by salivary glands and begins chemical breakdown of starch
pepsinogen
The inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by specialized (chief) cells located in gastric pits of the stomach.
Trypsin
an enzyme from the pancreas that digests proteins in the small intestine
Lipase
an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
Tracheae
tiny tubes in insect body that deliver oxygen directly to metabolizing tissues
Spiracles
openings on the abdomen and thorax through which air enters and waste gases leave the insect's body
Alveoli
thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Lol swiss cheese if you smoke
Cuticle
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
Is it just me or are these things appearing twice.
Well, it's a good way to drill them into your mind.
Stomates
Openings in leaves that regulate the movement of H2O, O2, and CO2
Guard Cells
That way your stomata won't keep open forever.
transpiration
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
Aerobic respiration
cellular respiration that uses oxygen, sequentially releasing energy and storing it in ATP
Lactic acid fermentation
series of anaerobic chemical reactions in which pyruvic acid uses NADH to form lactic acid and NAD+, which is then used in glycolysis; supplies energy when oxygen for aerobic respiration is scarce
We need NADH, so we recycle this through_______. Usually happens when you're running. But since most people these days are Rubenesque, this can happen when you climb stairs.
Anaerobic respiration
the process by which cells obtain energy from an energy source without using oxygen
Glycolysis
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Alcoholic fermentation
anaerobic process in which cells convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol; carried out by many bacteria and fungi such as yeasts
your beer, sir.
Electron transport system
passage of electrons along a series of membrane-bounded electron carrier molecules from a higher to lower energy level; the energy released is used for the synthesis of ATP
Coenzyme A
enzyme that combines with an acetyl group to form acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA
The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
Because the matrix can't accept pyruvate.
Pyruvate
Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end products of glycolysis
Krebs Cycle
Occurs in The Matrix. No, the matrix in the mitochondria. Stage of cellular respiration that finishes the breakdown of pyruvic acid molecules to carbon dioxide, releasing energy.
Two ATP produced after all the Acetyl CoA has been cycled.
Cytochrome
an iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts
Mitochondria
You're almost to the end! This organelle is what's powering you right now!
Cristae
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
Matrix
The interior of a mitochondrion (the region bounded by the inner membrane)., The matrix is the site of action of pyruvate dehydroganse complex and the Krebs cycle.
lol basically, where the Krebs cycle occurs
Facultative aerobes
an organism that is normally anaerobic but can also grow in the presence of oxygen
Obligate anaerobes
If you are this, you CANNOT grow in the presence of oxygen.
Obligate aerobes
You DEPEND on oxygen to survive.
Hydrolysis
A chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.
Basically, forming something by sucking the water outta them.
Congratulations, you completed the course. Now do it again.