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Historical Perspectives

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The initial shift from village to city inhibition took place in Mesopotamia, known to the Greeks as the "The Land Between Rivers" and to modern historians as...
Sumer
The Egyptian concept of ma'at...
includes ideas of harmony, order, justice and truth
The civilization that emerged in ancient Egypt arose...
at the same time as that of ancient Sumer
To the peoples of the ancient world, the characteristic manifestations of civilization - government, literature, science and art - were necessarily products of...
city life
Although the Akkadians were the predominant people of central Mesopotamia, they adopted...
Sumerian script, culture and war techniques. KEPT OWN LANG.
The Sumerians rulers may be viewed as the first rulers in history to claim to rule...
by divine right
Before entering an enjoyable afterlife, the deceased Egyptian supposedly...
would be judged by Osiris and other divine judges
Agriculture surplus made it possible for early societies to become more stable and to expand in population...
and allowed for social growth since not all the labor was focused on the land and cultivation of more grain
Although hominid existence extends back millennia, human civilization extends back only to approx....
3000 BCE
Early pharaohs had difficulty establishing their rule over all Egypt due to...
the power of local civic and religious authorities
Ur grew in power under Shulgi, who expanded everything except...
the establishment of a center for artistic development in AKkad
The great pyramids of Giza, built in the fourth dynasty, were...
constructed by thousands of peasant workers who were not slaves
Although many prehistoric settlements are known, one of the earliest of these in modern-day Turkey is...
Catalhoyuk
The method of numbering Egyptian dynasties begins with the...
Zero dynasty
The Egyptian "Book of the Dead" contains...
magic spells, formulae, and incantations needed in the afterlife
Since human beings in the Paleolithic period had no domestic animals...
they had no significant wealth beyond what they could carry
Sargon of Akkad is significant because he...
subdued SUmer and exerted influence form Ethiopia to the Indus Valley
Egyptian society consisted of...
a tiny minority of royalty and nobility and a majority class of the poor, including peasants and artisans.
The egyptians were the first...
prehistoric society
Shortly before 3000 BCE people in the Near East discovered that bronze could be produced by...
combining copper metal with arsenic or tin
Who was the first king to launch wars of aggression in the name of his primary god?
Hammurabi
Human cultures down to the fourth millennium BC are referred to as belonging to the Stone Age because they...
made most of their tools out of stone.
Jericho, one of the world's oldest villages, emerged as a seasonal settlement around...
9500 BC
Why was Sumer an uninviting environment for the first cities?
The soil is infertile and the rivers flood unpredictably
Egypt in the Old and Middle Kingdoms was maintained chiefly through...
smart trade and establishment...not conquest
While both Egypt and Mesopotamia use the wheel in pottery making, in the Early Bronze Age, only Mesopotamia used the wheel...
for transport and war chariots.
The Egyptians made notable advances in....
measuring time
Cave paintings, such as those found in Lascaux, France, are evidence of...
development of language as well as religious and artistic ideas
Both Mesopotamia and Egyptian society did not rely heavily on...
slave labor for agricultural and building work.
The Law Code of Hammurabi...
was propagandistic in purpose
Hammurbi's empire was founded on...
political strategy and diplomacy
The Epic of Gilgamesh is considered the world's first great literary masterpiece, and,,,
the work relates the adventures of a king of Uruk in ancient Sumer
The important administrator of the pharaoh Djoser who initiated pyramid building in the "step" style was...
Imhotep
Egyptian and Mesopotamian hieroglyphic writing developed...
independently of one another
Labor among Paleolithic peoples was....
not strictly divided along gender lines. Men and women shared responsibility for both hunting and gathering.
Although the Neolithic Revolution occurred over a period of several thousand years, it represents a revolutionary shift in the way human beings...
acquired the food necessary for their survival.
The Akkadian rulers of Sargon and Naram-Sin...
ruled from cities and kept their empires through conquest and commerce
Prior to the coming of the Hyksos, the ancient Egyptians...
regarded their country as the secure center of the cosmos
The Second Intermediate Period in Egyptian history was brought about...
by the conquest of Lower Egypt by a Semitic-speaking people who employed horse-drawn chariot in their warfare
Hattusilis and his successors eventually expanded the Hittite Kingdom by...
sacking the fabled city of Babylon and collecting its riches
In the book of Judges, the Hebrew people...
begin to settle and organize themselves into twelve tribes
When Akhenaten died and was succeeded by Tutankhamen...
the new pharaoh rejected his predecessor's beliefs and changed his name
The priests at the greatest Egyptian temple complexes at Thebes...
received special favor from the Eighteenth Dynasty, which worship Amon-Ra
The New Kingdom, particularly the Eighteenth Dynasty, was marked by...
the peak of Egyptian cultural achievement, and political and military power
Around 1200 BCE, an inscription by Pharaoh Ramses III records
an Egyptian victory over the "Sea Peoples," invaders from the North
The accomplishments of King Darius of Persia included...
building roads for transport and postal service
Anatolia grew in wealth and became urbanized in part due to...
the Assyrians who changed from a nomadic lifestyle to become caravan merchants
During the first millennium BCE...
iron slowly replaced bronze as the primary component of tools and weapons
One belief that other Western religions took from Zoroastrianism is the idea...
of a day of Judgement
The Eighteenth Dynasty in Egypt produced many strong pharaohs, among them...
Hatshesut
The "Babylonian Captivity" of the Hebrew people was begun in the rule of....
The Chaldeans
Although not original with them, the monotheism as developed by the Hebrew people different from other religions by the...
development of particular ritual practices that differed from other religions
Aegean civilization was long thought to have been...
the legendary or prehistoric component of Greek civilization
Influenced by their long struggle to survive, the Assyrians..
acted very aggressively toward other peoples
By the fourteenth century BCE, international relations were marked by...
diplomatic standards, polite forms of address, gifts, and alliances
The system of writing developed by the citizens of Ugarit...
used an alphabet of about thirty symbols for the consonants
Mycenaean Greece played a central role in Bronze Age networks as evidenced by...
correspondence sent by the Hittite king Hattusilis III to the "King of Ahhiyawa"
Akhenaten represents one of the earliest moves, in Western history, toward...
monotheism in religious practices.
"Indo-European" as used in historical or anthropological texts, refers to...
linguistic and cultural patterns found in India, the Near East, Europe and perhaps the Far East
As part of his religious reform, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and...
founded a new capital called Akhetaten (near the modern city of el-Amarna)
The Phoenicians' greatest contribution to civilization was...
the alphabet
Heinrich Schliemann and Sir Arthur Evans were...
archaeologists who dug up Troy, Mycenae and Knossos
Before the Persian empire could be formed, the Persian people had first to defeat their rulers...
the Chaldeans
The Hebrew cult of Yahweh emphasized...
the protective covenant between God and his people, helping transcend the old divisions between Israel and Judah
Unlike other rulers, Cyrus of Persia (559-529 BCE)..
allowed self-rule and religious freedom to conquered peoples
The division of the ancient kingdom of Israel was...
provoked by Solomon's oppressive regime
The Assyrian king...
also served as chief priest of the Assyrian religion
Members of the group known in the Hebrew Bible as the Philistines...
brought grapevines and olive trees to the Levant
The people who settles in Anatolia around 2000 BCE and built a powerful, militaristic kingdom there over the next four hundred years are known as the...
Hittites
Zarathustra attempted to redefine religion...
as ethical practices common to all people
We know very little about the Philistines because...
they left no written records
The culture of the Hittites was...
strongly militaristic, prone to attacks on other peoples
During the Late Bronze Age (1500-1200 BCE) in the ancient Near East, the two great imperial powers were...
New Kingdom Egypt and the Hittite empire
King David's rule was significant in establishing...
the idea of ISrael as a unified nation, fulfilling God's promises
Relations after 1500 BCE are more appropriately referred to as "transnational" because...
the political and economic networks transcended national boundaries and identities.
The Minoans' reputation...
was as a peaceful, matriarchal society is unlikely.
The defeat of the Assyrians and destruction of Nineveh was...
the work of Meded from Iran and the Chaldeans (neo-Babylonians)
The Phoenicians are also known as the...
Canaanites
The Greek term Phoenician means...
purple people
The followers of Zoroastrianism believed in...
Ahura-Mazda (truth/light) struggling with Ahriman (evil/darkness)
The earlier Assyrian empire had been devastated by the ____, but in the ninth century BCE the foundations for a neo-Assyrian empire were laid by Assurnasirpal II
Sea Peoples
Assurbanipal II, king of Assyria, has the distinction of...
acquiring a deserves reputation for cruelty and savagery
Trade in the Late Bronze Age was increasingly seaborne, rather than river borne, and allowed smaller, seaside centers to become powerful city-states...
TRUE
During the Hyksos period in Egypt (17th-16th centuries BCE)...
foreigners took over government in northern Egypt and acted like pharaohs, the invaders maintained their connections with the Aegean, Syria, and Palestine,; the weakened government in the south lost control of Nubian, and some Hyksos rulers incorporated the name of the god Ra into their own names
The division of property and wealth in New Kingdom Egypt...
favored the pharaoh, the officer class, and the temples of the gods
The origins of Greek democracy can be identified, in part, in the rule of the Athenian aristocrat...
Solon
The Greeks referred to some people with whom they came into contact as barbarians because they...
did not speak Greek
During the Second Persian War, Themistocles persuaded his fellow Athenians to...
abandon the city of Athens and let the Persians burn it
The modern term to describe the relationship between a same-sex female relationship may be traced back to the lyric poet Sappho because of her...
place of residence (Lesbos)
What form of government did Sparta impose on the defeated Athenians and their allies?
oligarchy
The philosophical tradition founded by Pythagoras believed that the ultimate essence of the universe was...
mathematical
Drama in classical Athens was transformed when...
Aeschylus introduced additional characters and a chorus to stage presentations in order to present human conflict and conversation
Hubris is...
excessive pride, which was punished by the gods.
Due to the Persian Wars, the center of Greek philosophical speculation shifted from Inoia to...
the Greek "far west."
Those Greeks who were able to accumulate wealth during the Dark Age...
eventually emerged as the Greek aristocracy
The first historian of the Western world was...
Herodotus
The Phoenicians introduced the Greeks to...
seafaring as a means of trade
the Greek polis was...
a collective group or community organized around a city
Socrates most important pupil was...
Plato
The "Ionian revolution in thought" can best be described as...
relativism
The purpose of tragedy was to...
help the audience purge their emotions
The politician who took up the cause of the theres in their quest for citizenship was...
Pericles
After Hoplites were introduced in Greece...
aristocrats lost their monopoly on military prowess
The period of time known as the "Golden Age of Classical Greece" was bounded in time by...
the end of the Persian Wars and the beginning of the Peloponnesian War
The Peloponnesian War was a response to...
Athenian oppression, superiority, and aggression
The ancient Greek synoikismos or synoecism meant...
building towns and cities, often around temples, into small states
Why was the Peloponnesian War deadlocked for an extended period of time?
Athen could not defeat Sparta on land, and Sparta could not defeat Athens at sea
Sparta...
depended on the enslaved labor of helots
The Greeks became literate again during the ninth century BCE by adopting...
the Phoenician alphabet
According to the historian Thucydides, the Peloponnesian War began...
because of the growing power of Athens, and the fear and envy this inspired in Sparta
Although Dark Age Greece is largely undocumented and therefore difficult to study thoroughly, it seems clear that...
early Greeks were economically stagnant and cut off from other Near Eastern civilization
In the symposium, Archaic Age Greek aristocrats...
enjoyed wine and listened to poetry
What best describes the structure of the Spartan government c. 600 BCE?
Sparta was ruled by a citizen assembly, a council of elders, and two kings
Since every polis needed Hoplites...
the men who took part began to demand a role in politics
The Illiad and the Odyssey...
provide evidence for the heroic ideal of late Dark Age Greece
The aristocracy of eighth - and seventh - century Athens gained their power and wealth from...
the land, not the sea
The growth of Athenian democracy, with its emphasis on equality between citizens, led to...
greater inequality between men and women
By the sixth century BCE Greeks founded numerous colonies around the Mediterranean basin. Where were the most historically significant colonies located?
Anatolia and Italy
Greek sculpture evolved from the rather stiff likenesses resembling Egyptian statuary to a style labeled as...
naturalism
Cleisthenes is important in the history of Athenian government because he...
championed the cause of the demos and took steps to limit the power of aristocrats
The Persian Wars were begun by...
a revolt instigated by the Ionian Greeks against the Persians
The Delian League helped to transform which city-state into an empire...
Athens
The Greek innovation in shipbuilding, the trireme, was so called because it had...
three banks of oars on each side
The Persian Wars might be said to be ideologically based as they were waged between...
the Greeks who believed they should rule themselves and the Persian empire
The Greek ideal of hospitality is exemplified by the encounter relate by Homer in the Iliad between...
Glaucus and Diomedes
The decisive Greek military victory over the Persians at Salamis was won by...
The Athenian fleet
The ____ was the first political and religious confederation of independent poleis pledged to support each other in times of need.
Delian league
Who persuaded Athens to use the newly discovered silver vein in the Attic countryside to build a navy in order to counter a future Persian invasion?
Themistocles
The Archaic Age of Greece begins with the emergence of the polis and the return of writing, but most of what we know of the period comes from the particular perspective of the...
Corinthians
The Sophist claim that "man is the measure of all things" means...
goodness, truth, and justice are not absolutes, but vary according to the needs and interests of human beings
Panhellenic festivals in ancient Greece included...
athletic contests honoring the gods
Tyrannies are...
a single aristocrat support by the hoplites and ruled outside the normal framework of government
Who's reforms led to the basis of Athenian government?
Solon
The Spartans failed to come to the aid of the Athenians during the battle of Marathon because...
they were in the middle of a festival
During the Archaic age, respectable aristocratic women...
were excluded from politics
Socrates' aim was to show...
that truth is real and absolute standards of goodness and virtue do exist
The ultimate aim of the military and political policies of Philip II was:
to invade Persia
Who discovered the law of specific gravity and the principles of the lever, the screw, and the pulley?
Archimedes
Macedonian rule in Egypt was characterized by:
A revival of ancient traditions associated with the pharaohs
To control his newly created empire, Alexander constructed...
Greek-style cities
Aristotle argued that good conduct is virtuous conduct and that virtue resides in aiming...
to act moderately in all things
Although he died in ____, Alexander was buried at _____
Babylon, Memphis in Egypt
Aristarchus of Samos's deduction .....
earth circled the sun
Praxiteles was unique among the ancient Greek sculptors due to his...
being the first to sculpt a female nude
Central to the Skeptical worldview is the idea that...
one must suspend judgement concerning everything
In the Republic, Plato argues against...
a return to the democratic state
All of the male rules of Macedonian Egypt took the name...
Ptolemy
Alexander the Great is said to have taken two books with him on his conquest of Persia; one was Homer's Iliad and the other was...
Xenophon's Anabasis
Why couldn't the Greek city-states unite during the fourth century BCE?
The independent temper of Greek political life made unity impossible
After defeating Darius's armies, Alexander moved his capital to...
Alexandria
According to Stoicism, evil...
does exist
Platonic dialogues are...
some of the earliest surviving works of Philosophy
During the economic decline of Greece in the fourth century BCE...
former soldiers often worked as mercenaries, who disrupted the household-based culture of the Greek poleis
What similarities did Stoicism and Epicureanism share?
An emphasis on individualism, materialism and universalism
The Aetolian and Achaean Leagues differed from previous Greek attempts at political organization between poleis because...
they represented a real political unification, with some centralization of government functions
Mystery cults were popular mainly with the...
non-elite members of society
Aristotle argued that philosophers...
must be immersed in practical life in the real world
Aristotle argued that some people, including women, ....
were not fully human and were meant by nature to be slaves
Alexander the Great is a difficult figure for historians to evaluate because...
so many legends grew up around him during his lifetime
The leading political figure urging Greek resistance to Macedonian expansionism under Philip II was...
Demosthenes
Using the photograph of an ancient street in Ephesus shown in this chapter as evidence, which comment best describes life in this ancient Hellenistic city?
Ephesus demonstrates the far-reaching influence of Greek style and Hellenistic architecture
The fourth century in Greece witnessed a confused political terrain, with many attempting to discover a direction for the Greeks; among these was _____, who believed that the Greeks could rediscover their lost unity by invasion of Persia.
Isocrates
Why did autocratic rulers in the Hellenistic world encourage manufacturing industries?
Manufacturing increased international trade revenues and therefore taxation and tariffs
Aristotle believed that..
only real phenomena can be investigated in order to understand the world in which we live
The ___ taught that the only reason why one should be good is to increase one's own happiness
Epicureans
Aristarchus and Samos was unusual among Hellenistic astronomers because...
he believed that the earth revolves around the sun
Hellenistic sculpture is best described as...
realistic and alive
Macedonian military reforms under Philip II most clearly resemble earlier such reforms undertaken by...
Thebes
Alexander the Great founded a great empire that might be described as a ...
cultural empire
The Macedonians were regarded by the Greeks as little more than barbarians, but they did engage in one activity, ____, that indicates that they were, in fact, Greek.
The Olympic Games every four eyars
The chief characteristics of Hellenistic architecture were...
grandeur and ornamentation
The political and military alliance by which the Macedonians united Greece under their own rule was known as...
The League of Corinth
The ____ War represented the beginning of the end of Greek dominance....
Corinthian
The first individual to predict that one could reach Asia by sailing west was...
Eratosthenes
Alexander was aided in his conquest of Egypt by...
being proclaimed as the "son of Amun" by the sun god's oracle
Whereas Plato conceived of politics as a means toward living the good life, Aristotle regarded politics as...
an end in itself
Why didn't Sparta benefit more from its victory in the Peloponnesian War?
Sparta alienated the other Greek cities by trying to dominate them
Who was the first Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language?
Cleopatra VII
The Theban Sacred Band was...
an elite military unit composed entirely of make couples
The most important cultural center in the Hellenistic world was...
Alexandria
The ___ Believed that the cosmos is an ordered whole in which all contradictions are resolved for ultimate good
Stoics
A philosophical concern of Plato's was...
to establish a just society
Hellenistic cosmopolitanism differed from Persian and Roman cosmopolitanism because...
it was cultural rather than linked directly to a particular imperial power
Philip II of Macedon's early success had much to do with his...
reorganization of the Macedonian army
Herophilus of Chalcedon was an innovative ____ in the ancient Hellenistic world
anatomist
To highlight their authority and status in the former Persian empire, Seleucid rulers...
used terms in proclamations reminiscent of earlier Mesopotamian rulers
as outline in the Republic, Plato's ideal form of government is best described as...
a meritocracy
During the Corinthian War (395-387 BCE) Sparta fought against...
an alliance comprised of Athens, Argos, Corinth and Thebes
By the third century BC, Roman aristocracy gradually shifted from being a position of....
birth to wealth
Although the Roman Republic had greatly increases the territory ruled by Rome, under the emperors even more territory was added to the empire with _____ adding more than any other ruler.
Augustus
One way that the Romans were influenced by the Greeks was by....
observing the many Greeks who lived in Sicily and southern Italy
According to the patria potestas provision of the Twelve Tables, a Roman father:
had absolute power over his family, up to and including the power of life and death
The "Latin Right" of the early Romans guaranteed that:
contracts, marriages, and citizenship were valid across Latium
Virgil's Aeneid built on Homer's epic literature by...
connecting Roman history to the heroic narrative of the Trojan War
Rome was a crucial factor in the development of European civilization because...
Rome connected Europe to the cultural heritage of the Near East
The Augustan system of government...
is known as the early empire or Participate, because Octavian ruled as first citizen
Prior to Julius Caesar's appointment as "Dictator for life," only one other Roman had been appointed to that position without the traditional six-month term, and he was...
Sulla
In the aftermath of the assassination of Julius Caesar, the Second Triumvirate took out its revenge on everyone opposed to them; one of the more prominent victims of the Second Triumvirate was...
Cicero
Social tensions in the late Roman Republic were made worse by...
the fourfold division of people: senators, equestrians, commoners, and slaves
The division between Roman patricians and plebeians was:
between the wealthiest (2%) and the rest (98%) of the people
Who was the first Roman leader to recognize the significance of northwestern Europe?
Caesar
Pax Romana refers to the...
long period in which there were no major wars within the Roman Empire
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 BCE, represent....
the codification of existing laws for all to see and obey
The war between Pompey and Caesar was a direct result of...
Pompey's election as sole consul in 52 BCE
After plebeian rebellion in the early fifth century BCE...
the patricians accepted the elected turbines and written laws
One way by which the Romans were able to maintain their empire was through...
a system of roads constructed to be able to move army units throughout the empire
The Romans were a military society almost from the moment they settled in Italy because...
they were continually forced to defend their own conquests against invaders
Roman law consisted of three branches: civil law, natural law, and ...
law of the peoples (Nations)
To limit the influence of wealth in Roman politics, new laws were passed....
preventing senators from engaging in commerce
The "Golden Age" in Roman literature refers to the literature produced under the reign of...
Augustus
In On the Nature of Things, Lucretius argued that...
the gods did not create or govern the universe and there is no immortal soul
Prior to the establishment of Rome as the dominant state in Italy...
Etruscans, skilled metalworkers and artists, lived there
Once the Romans had effectively gained control of Italy (265 BC)...
they started a series of wars for control of the western Mediterranean
Why did the Romans regard Carthage as a threat?
The Carthaginian empire in Sicily and Spain was encroaching on Rome
In the early Roman Republic, Rome was technically a democracy but...
the Roman constitution essentially ensured oligarchic rule
Rome was a crucial factor in the development of European civilization because...
Rome connected Europe to the cultural heritage of the Near East
Are knowledge of the Etruscans is limited because...
their language has yet to be deciphered
The Julian Calendar was a...
calendar adapted from the Egyptians as to make a 365 day year with an added day every fourth year
Cultural and intellectual developments in Rome reached their pinnacle during...
the Principate
The Gracchi brothers were ____ who pressured the Senate to pass land reform laws in the second century BCE
tribunes
In terms of geography and natural resources, the Italian peninsula...
was more fertile that ancient Greece
Deep reserves of manpower and the disciple of Rome and its allies were the keys to success in...
overcoming Hannibal's military genius
The Romans were the first people to use ___ on a massive scale in their buildings
concrete
Changes in the Roman law of marriage in the second century BCE meant that...
wives retained control of their fathers' property, preserving their independence
During the early Roman Republic, Rome...
expanded slowly and extended the Latin Right to many of the cities it conquered
The wars between Rome and Carthage are called the Punic Wars because...
the Romans called them "Punei" or Phonecians
Italy was the most, what based economy known to history?
slave
Central to Roman identity was a conservatism expressed in an unwritten code of...
mos maiorum
Traditional Roman religion included ancestor worship and...
oligarchs who played dual roles as priests and politicians
One important difference between Roman religion and Greek religion was the Roman view of...
the gods as household gods
The greatest Roman Stoic, Cicero, believed that...
virtue leads to happiness, and peace of mind is the highest goal
When Julius Caesar adopted Octavian as his heir...
Octavian had to fight his rivals and kill his republican opponents
After Rome had twice defeated Carthage, a Third Punic War was...
provoked by war hawks who thought Carthage must be destroyed
Stoicism was popular with the ____ classes
upper
The Romans did not usually impose heavy taxes or tributes on the cities they conquered, but...
demanded soldiers to contribute to their army
One consequence of Rome's conquests was the increased role in society played by...
slaves
The Romans were able to support cities with large populations due, in no small measure, to the...
construction of a system of aqueducts to allow a steady supply of potable water to the cities
Which legend explains the end of the Roman monarchy and the founding of the Republic?
the rape of Lucretia
The myth of the rape of Lucretia appealed to Roman patriotism by emphasizing...
the corruption of Etruscan morals and government
One example of how Rome transformed the world into the Roman world would be...
that the evolving process of Roman leaders coming from everywhere within the empire and people would settle far from their place of birth
Although many emperors who followed Augustus in the Julio-Claudian dynasty were able individuals, many were not; arguably the worst of these was...
Caligula
The equestrian order (Roman knights) was established when...
businessmen who did not become senators wanted privileges
Those who ruled Rome form 96-180 CE were called the "Five Good Emperors" because...
they were capable administrators who governed successfully
Roman religion was not exclusive...
new gods could be added and honored or removed
The greatest honor a Roman could hope to achieve was...
to sacrifice himself, his family, and his friends for the state
Cicero, one of the most famous Stoics of the later republic, believed in all the tenets of Stoicism except...
withdrawal from public life
The Augustan system refers to...
the political reforms instituted by Augustus and continued under his successors