Upgrade to remove ads
APUSH Alvies Period 4 Test (Utopian Communities and Manifest Destiny)
Terms in this set (68)
This movement copied early European efforts at utopianism. Utopianism was an attempt by cooperative communities to improve life in the face of increasing industrialism. Groups practiced social experiments that generally saw little success due to their radicalism. Utopianism included attempts at sexual equality, racial equality, and socialism. Two of these communities were Brook Farm and Oneida. Experimental Communities that started springing up in the 1820s.
A religious group that established small utopian communities, ranging from Maine to Kentucky. The name Shaker came from a ritual shaking dance that the members of the group performed. In the mid-1800s, the Shakers reached their peak with almost 6000 members. The Shakers did not believe in having children, and so they only relied on converts to expand the community. In the end though, they were very few Americans who decided to live in utopian communities.
In Iowa, colonies of Germans who belonged to a religious reform movement known as Pietism. They emphasized simple, communal living, but allowed marriage. Their communities continued to prosper, although they no longer practice their communal ways of living. They are famous for manufacturing their own appliances.
Was an American educator who was the first secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education. He implemented reforms in education based on liberal social ideas. He made available high-quality, no-cost, nondenominational public schooling. The system has lasted to present day, and as a result, Mann has been called the father of the American public school.
The Temperance Movement sought to moderate or ban alcohol consumption. Alcohol's growing availability, concerns about its effects on moral behavior, and ongoing societal reforms encouraged the movement. Women were strong proponents of the movement, as some husbands spent family money on alcohol. The movement led Maine to become a dry state and peaked in 1919 with Prohibition.
American Temperance Society
An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem. This group was formed in Boston in 1826, and it was the first well-organized group created to deal with the problems drunkards had on societies well being, and the possible well-being of the individuals that are heavily influenced by alcohol. Established February 13th, 1826, in Boston, requires members to take an oath of sobriety. Press for reform, including the abolition of slavery and expanding of women's rights, eventually demand a prohibition law forcing abstinence upon citizens.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
WCTU All-women organization founded in 1874 to advocate for total abstinence from alcohol. The WCTU provided important political training for women (helped suffrage movement). The oldest continuing non-sectarian women's organization worldwide. Organized at a national convention in Cleveland, Ohio in 1874, the group spearheaded the crusade for prohibition.
Reformers proposed setting up new public institutions such as state-supported prisons, mental hospitals, and poorhouses; hope was that the inmates of these institutions would be cured of their antisocial behavior by being treated to a disciplined pattern of life in some rural setting
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Prisons which took the place of crude jails and lock-ups, which were erected in Pennsylvania. These experimented with the technique of placing prisoners in solitary confinement to force them to reflect on their sins and repent. These prison reforms reflected a major doctrine of the asylum movement: structure and discipline would bring about moral reform.
A penal method of the 19th century in which persons worked during the day in groups and were kept in solitary confinement at night, with enforced silence at all times. The silent system evolved during the 1820s at Auburn Prison in Auburn, N.Y., as an alternative to and modification of the Pennsylvania system of solitary confinement, which it gradually replaced in the United States. Whigs favored this system because it promised to rehabilitate criminals by teaching them personal discipline and respect for work, property, and other people.
Horace Mann Public School Movement
This was another movement started in the Jacksonian era focused on the need for establishing free public schools for Children of all classes. Horace Mann (1796-1859) was the leading advocate of the common (public) school movement for tax-supported school spread rapidly to other states.
One of the first known textbooks, it is estimated that at least 120 million copies of McGuffey's Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, sell about 30,000 copies a year. McGuffey's Readers are still in use today in some school systems, and by parents for home schooling purposes. Created a series of elementary textbooks used to teach reading and morality (morals like hard work and sobriety)
American Colonization Society
The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America was the primary proposal to return free African Americans to what was considered greater freedom in Africa. It helped find the colony of Liberia in 1821-1822, as a place for Freedom.
Abolitionism; William Lloyd Garrison; The Liberator
Abolitionism began with the idea of purchasing and transporting slaves to free African sates, which had little success. Anti-slavery societies supported Abolitionism, and some faced violent opposition. The abolition invent split into two: (1) radical followers and (2) those who petitioned Congress. Abolitionism entered politics through the Liberty Party, which called for non-expansion of slavery into new Western territories. William Lloyd Garrison's newspaper, The Liberator, espoused his views that slaves should be immediately emancipate. Many other anti-slavery advocated of the 1830s and 1840s recommended a gradual approach. Because of his inflexible position and the fiery language he used in his paper, opposition to his policies developed within abolitionist groups. Garrison also advocated an unpopular position in favor of equal rights for women. After the Civil War, he promoted free trade, suffrage for women, and fair treatment for American Indians.
Fredrick Douglas; The North Star
Fredrick Douglass was an escaped slave and outspoken abolitionist. He escaped form his Maryland owner and publish his own newspaper, The North Star. He favored the use of political method of reform. In the Civil War, he helped put together regiment of African Americans from Massachusetts and urged other to join the Union army. Frederick Douglass is known as the father of the American civil rights movement.
Was a slave smuggler and "conductor" of the Underground Railroad. A freed slave herself, Tubman led over 300 to Freedom.
An anti-slavery activist who was active in the New York Committee of Vigilance and the Underground Railroad. As an "African-American printer in New York City during the 1830s" who was "the prototype for black activist journalists of his time". He claimed to have lead over six hundred people, including friend and fellow abolitionist Frederick Douglass, to freedom in the North.
The self-given name, from 1843, of Isabella Baumfree a United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883). Truth was born into slavery in New York. Her best-known speech, Ain't I a Women?, was delivered in 1851 at the Ohio WOmen's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio.
Was an African American and an early figure in the abolitionist movement. In 1829, he created a pamphlet, Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, which called for people to resist slavery by any means. Southerners grew angry over his push for self-defense.
Was a slave who held an insurrection in Southampton, Virginia in 1831. He was influential among local slaves as a preacher. He believed it was his destiny to deliver slaves into freedom. Turner led approximately 60 in revolt, first killing the family of his owner and then killing 55 white people in the surrounding neighborhood. The revolt was put down and Turner, some of his conspirators, and several free African Americans are excited. The revolt produced stricter slave laws in the South and resulted in an end to Southern organizations advocating abolition.
The time period before the Civil War during which there were many reforms, including the establishment of free (tax-supported) public schools, improving the treatment of the mentally ill, controlling/abolishing the sale of alcohol, winning equal legal/political rights for women, and abolishing slavery.
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Ralph Waldo Emerson "The American Scholar"
Was a transcendentalist essayist and lecturer. Self-Reliance (1841), one of his essays, promoted the virtue of independence. Through the themes in his writing and through the independent lifestyle he lived, Emerson strongly influenced American though and culture.
People who favored the political, social, and economic equality of men and women
Henry David Thoreau "Walden" On Civil Disobedience
An American author, poet, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, philosopher, and leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surrounds, and his essay, Civil disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state.
An American journalist, critic, and women's rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement. She was the first full-time American female book reviewer in journalism. Her book Women in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first major feminist work in the United States.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
much of religious enthusiasm of the time was based on the widespread belief that the world was about to end with the second coming of Christ; preacher William Miller gained tens of thousands of followers by predicting a specific date when the second coming would occur (didn't happen-Millerites will become Seventh Day Adventists)
Church of Latter-Day Saints Mormons
Organized by Joseph Smith.
Religious followers of Joseph Smith who founded a communal oligarchic religious order in the 1830s officially known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Mormons facing deep hostility from their non-Mormon neighbors eventually migrated west and established a flourishing settlement in the Utah desert.
The Mormon religion was founded by Jospeh Smith. Smith claimed to have received sacred writings; he organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Smith described a vision from God in which God declared specific tents of Christianity to be abominations. Because of these claims and unusual paradises such as polygamy(more than one wife), Mormons were shunned. Eventually, Mormons moved westward and formed a community near the Great Salt Lake under Brigham Young's leadership. The settlement became the sate of Utah.
Mormons moved westward and formed a community near the Great Salt Lake under Brigham Young's leadership. Successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith; responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Salt Lake City, Utah
Women's Rights Movement
Movement beginning in the mid-1800s in the United States that sought greater rights and opportunities for women
Cult of Domesticity
Unlike the more public-minded idea of Republic Motherhood, the "Cult of Domesticity" concept defined a woman's role jin marriage as painting the home for her husband and raising the children. Women participated in limited political activity that was mostly religious and reform in nature, such as Abolitionism. Their employment was restricted mostly to school teaching. A woman's property became her husband's. Int future years, the women's right movement would rise to confront this "cult of domesticity. "
A woman who published a pamphlet arguing for equal rights of women called "Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women". She also argued for equal education opportunities
Daughter of a South Carolina slaveholder that were antislavery. Controversial because she spoke to audiences of both men and women at a time when it was thought indelicate to address male audiences. Womens' rights advocates as well. "Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women."
"Letters on the Equality of Sexes and the Condition of Women"
Book published by Sarah Grimke, a powerful call for equal rights for women stating "equal pay for equal works". Used the individualist feminist approach of comparing slavery to marriage for the wife where women are treated as property and have little to no rights especially in economic affairs of the house hold.
An American Quaker, abolitionist, social reformer, and proponent of women's rights. She is credited as the first American "feminist" in the early 19th Century but was, more accurately, the initiator of women's political advocacy.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.She is often credited with initiating the first organized women's rights and woman's suffrage movement in the US>
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
Women were excluded from an abolitionist conference in London. In response, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Lady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention. It was attended by women who challenged the cultural and legal restrictions they faced. The Seneca Falls Convention is often considered the birth of the women's rights movement. The convention's Declaration of Sentiments stated, "All men and women are created equal."
Susan B. Anthony
Key leader of woman suffrage movement, social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Was the belief that America was destined to expand to the Pacific and possibly into Canada and Mexico. John O'Sullivan, an American journalist, wrote an article pushing for the annexation of Texan and coined the phrase "Manifest Destiny." Manifest Destiny came out of post-1812 War nationalism, the reform impulse of the 1830s, and the need for new resources. Whigs who supported Manifest Destiny favored more peaceful means, while other Whigs feared American expansion because it might raise the slavery issue in new territories. Manifest Destiny was an engine of both discovery and destruction; though it helped America push westward, the ideas behind Manifest Destiny fueled the Mexican War and the displacement of American Indians.
Samuel F.B. Morse
Invented the telegraph and invented morse code, pioneer in the telegraph, first way people could mass communicate quickly, use the code to communicate.
Panic of 1857
Financial crash brought on by gold-fueled inflation, overspeculation and excess grain production. Raised calls in the North for higher tariffs and for free homesteads on western public lands. South felt superior because their economy was not hit as badly due to cotton.
Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been coined by Major Long during his exploration of the middle portion of the Louisiana Purchase region.
Fur traders, the earliest nonnative group to open the Far West. In the 1820s, they held yearly rendezvous in the Rockies with Native Americans to trade. James Beckwourth, Jim Bridger, Kit Carson, and Jedediah Smith were among the hardy band of explorers and trappers who provided much of the early information about trails and frontier conditions
The long and arduous trek usually began in St. Joseph or Independence Missouri or in Iowa and followed the river valleys through the Great Plains, months later, the wagon trans would finally reach the foothills of the Rockies or face the hardships of the southwestern desserts. Disease was a much greater threat than Indian attack.
Miners who rushed to California after the discovery of gold were called "Forty Niners." More than 80,000 prospectors "rushed" to San Francisco. The increased population led to California joining the Union as a free state. The Gold Rush connected to the idea of Manifest Destiny.
Miners rused to Coloroado, Nevado, the Black Hills of the Dakotas, and other western states to search for silver
Federal Land Grants
Local and state governments gave tax breaks and special loans to finance growth of railroads; 1850, US gave 2.6million acres of federal land to build the Illinois Central railroad from Lake Michigan to Gulf of Mexico, first land grant
For twenty years, the British and the United States agreed to jointly occupy this region. But in the mid-1840s this region became a political issue in the United States, with many expansionists willing to risk war to get all of the territory, including present-day British Columbia (54 40 or fight!). In 1846, Britain and the United States agreed to extend the 49th Parallel, forming the modern border between Canada and the United States. The settlers quickly applied for territorial status, which Congress granted in 1849. The territory was gradually split up, and in 1859, it—with its present borders—became the 33rd state.
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"
Political slogan of the Democrats in the election of 1844, which claimed fifty-four degrees, forty minutes as the boundary of the Oregon territory claimed by the United States. Amount of land north of Oregon annexers wanted. The slogan of the supporters of Polk's plan for Oregon. They wanted the border of the territory to be on 54' 40° and were willing to fight Britain about it. Eventually 49 degrees was adopted as the border, no violence.
Was an amendment to a Mexican War appropriations bill. It proposed that slavery could not exit in any territory that might be acquired from Mexico. The amendment was passed in the U.S. House of Representatives several times, but it was ultimately defeated on each occasion because the South had power in the Senate.
Osten Manifesto (1852)
Was drafted by James Buchanan, John Mason, and Pierre Soule after Soule failed to purchase Cuba from Spain. It suggested that the United States should take Cuba from Spain by Force if Spain refused to sell it. Abolitionists saw this as a plot to extend slavery. Southerners supported it, as they had feared Cuba would be a free "Black Republic"
(1845) Originally refused in 1837, as the U.S. Government believed that the annexation would lead to war with Mexico. Texas remained a sovereign nation. Annexed via a joint resolution through Congress, supported by President-elect Polk, and approved in 1845. Land from the Republic of Texas later bacame parts of NM, CO, OK, KS, and WY. Led to war with Mexico.
Known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
A Mexican general and dictator, who dominated Mexican politics for a quarter of a century. He was elected president, but didn't serve; instead he overthrew the government and established himself as a dictator. He commanded the Mexican army that stormed The Alamo during the Texas Revolution of 1835 and 1836 and killed all 187 defenders, but he was shortly afterward defeated and captured by Sam Houston's Texans.
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States; First president of the Republic of Texas
Mission and fort that was the site of a siege and battle during the Texas Revolution, which resulted in the massacre of all its defenders; the event helped galvanize the Texas rebels and eventually led to their victory at the Battle of San Jacinto and independence from Mexico.
An undeclared confrontation in 1838-39 between the United States and Great Britain (lumbermen) over the international boundary between British North America (Canada) and Maine. The dispute resulted in a mutually accepted border between the state of Maine and the provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec.
An American chip was burned by Canadian Loyalists. Canada and the United States disputed the boundary of Maine. British ships sometimes topped American ships to suppress American slave smuggling. The treaty settled the boundary of Maine and border disputes int eh Great Lakes. IT created more cooperation between the United Sates and Britain in curbing the slave trade.
California; Bear Flag Republic
(1846) Short-lived California republic, established by local American settlers who revolted against Mexico. Once news of the war with Mexico reached the Americans, they abandoned the Republic in favor of joining the United States.The California Republic, also called the Bear Flag Republic, is the name used for a revolt against Mexico proclaimed by California settlers on June 14, 1846, in Sonoma in the then-Mexican province of California.
Conflict ensued over slavery in the newly acquired Mexican Cession. States' righters believed that the territory was the property of all states and that the federal government had no right to prohibit property ownership in territories. Many anti-slavery and federal government supporters contended that Congress had the power to make laws for the territories. An argument in favor of federal power was based on the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
February 2 1848. The agreement between President Polk and the new Mexican government for Mexico to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledge the Rio Grand as the boundary of Texas. In return, the US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million.
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the U.S. in 1881.
Agreement w/ Mexico that gave the US parts of present-day New Mexico & Arizona in exchange for $10 million; all but completed the continental expansion envisioned by those who believed in Manifest Destiny.
An 1854 agreement - the first between the United States and Japan - it opened two Japanese ports to American commerce, protected shipwrecked American sailors, and ended Japan's 200 years of isolation. Ended Japan's two-hundred year period of economic isolation, establishing an American consulate in Japan and securing American coaling rights in Japanese ports.
Tuesday's Essay Questions:
-------Explain a few reform movements, provide several example (people, location, text, etc.)
-------Compare and contrast the First and Second Great Awakening
-------Why didn't some people want Westward Expansion (Try to answer by Region, North, South)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APUSH Ch 13 Vocab/Identifications
APUSH Chapter 15 (The American Pageant)
APUSH Chapter 13
APUSH Terms Chapters 8,9 and 10 (Alvies Test)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 9 History Test
Society, Culture, and Reform 1824-1844
US history CH.12
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Test #1: Hinduism Part 2
Imagina, Lección 10
Unit 6 IB History
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
613 Final Study Guide
A&P Theory Exam 1
Social Justice Unit 2 Study Guide