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154 terms

Stuy Freshmen Biology Final

Made from a Manwell study guide
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Taxonomy
the classification and organization of living organisms. Rank: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. Organisms in the same species can breed and mate to produce fertile offspring.
Animalia
One of the five kingdoms, multi-cellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs. Most produce sexually, with adult members containing two copies of the genetic material.
Plantae
One of the five kingdoms, multi-cellular, eukaryotic, and photosynthetic autotrophs. They are able to adapt on land because they have internal structures for transporting water and nutrients and providing erect support.
Monera
One of the five kingdoms, Prokaryotes.
Fungi
One of the five kingdoms, Multi-cellular eukaryotes that absorb their nutrients.
Protista
Unicellular, multi-cellular, or colonial eukaryotes that all thrive in water-based environments. Perform cellular respiration, some with the ability to go through photosynthesis with chloroplasts
Homologies
structural resemblances that are the results of shared ancestry
Atom
Proton (positive), Electron (negative), Neutron (no charge)
Element
pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number, which is the number of protons in its nucleus. It cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
Molecule
a neutral group made of at least 2 different atoms in a definite arrangement held together by strong covalent bonds.
Mixture
two or more different substances that are not chemically combined.
Compound
pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different elements that cannot be separated physically, but may separate by means of chemical reactions.
Chemical bond
ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and hydrogen bonds.
Ionic bond
caused by the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Covalent bond
two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. They may be categorized into polar and non-polar bonds.
Hydrogen bond
the attraction between a slightly negative hydrogen atom in a molecule and a slightly positive hydrogen atom in a molecule. (i.e. water)
Dehydration Synthesis
the joining of two monomers through the loss of hydrogen to form a polymer.
Hydrolysis
the breaking apart of a polymer through the gaining of hydrogen.
pH
the measure of the acidity of basicity of a solution.
Carbohydrates
Biomacromolecule, Important energy source for cells, energy storage in plants/animals, provides structure, and material in plants. C, O, H. Glucose (monosaccharide), sucrose (dissacharide), glycogen, starch, cellulose (polaysaccharides).
Lipids
Biomacromolecule, Energy storage in animals/some plants, component of cell membranes, steroids, waterproof covering on leaves/stems. Glycerol (Hydrophilic) + Fatty Acids (Hydrophobic) = Triglyceride (Nonpolar) C, O, H, P. Oil, fat, waves, cholesterol, phophatidycholine.
Proteins
Biomacromolecule, Component of hair, transportation of oxygen, enzymes, important factor for growth. C, O, H N, S. Keratin, silk, hemoglobin.
Nucleic Acids
Biomacromolecule, Genetic material of cells/viruses, transfer of genetic info from DNA -> protein (intracellular messenger, principle short-term energy carrier (ATP). nitrogenous base, phosphate group, and sugar (ribose). C, O, H, N, P. DNA [deoxyribonucleic acid], RNA [ribonucleic acid]
Cell Theory
1. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of life.
2. If it is a living thing, then it must contain one or more cells.
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
Eukaryotes
- membrane-enclosed organelles
- multiple linear chromosomes (often in pairs)
- streaming in cytoplasm
- cell division by mitosis
- complex flagella
- larger ribosomes
- cytoskeleton
- cellulose in cell walls
- DNA wrapped around proteins
Prokaryotes
- no membrane enclosed organelles
- single circular chromosome
- no streaming in cytoplasm
- cell division without mitosis
- simple flagella
- small ribosomes
- no known cytoskeleton
- no cellulose in cell walls
- proteins bound to DNA
Central Vacuoles
A large, fluid-filled vacuole occupying most of the volume in plant cells ; performs several functions, including maintaining turgor pressure.
Centriole
in animal cells: a short, barrel-shaped ring consisting of nine microtubule triplets.
Chloroplast
organelle in plant/some protist cells that is the site of photosynthesis. It consists of a double membrane and an extensive internal membrane that bears chlorophyll.
Cytoplasm
the material contained within the plasma membrane of a cell, exclusive of the nucleus.
Cytoskeleton
a network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm that gives shape to a cell, holds and moves organelles, and is typically involved in cell movement.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
a system of membranous tubes and channels within eukaryotic cells; the site of most protein and lipid synthesis.
Golgi Complex
stack of membranous sacs found in most eukaryotic cells that is the site of processing/separation of membrane components and secretory materials.
Lysosome
membrane-bound organelle containing intracellular digestive enzymes.
Microfilament
part of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells that is composed of proteins actin and myosin; function in the movement of cell organelles and in locomotion by extension of the plasma membrane.
Microtubule
hollow, cylindrical strand found in eukaryotic cells. In the cytoskeleton, it is involved in movement of organelles, cell growth, and construction of cilia and flagella.
Mitochondrion
an organelle bounded by two membranes; site of aerobic metabolism (cellular respiration).
Nucleoid
location of genetic material in prokaryotic cells; not membrane-enclosed.
Nucleolus
region of eukaryotic nucleus that is engaged in ribosome synthesis, consists of genes encoding ribosomal RNA, newly synthesized mRna, and ribosomal proteins.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
ER lined with ribosomes.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
ER without ribosomes, also the location of detoxification.
Vesicle
small, membrane-bound sac with the cytoplasm.
Membrane
"fluid mosaics" in which proteins move within layers of lipids
phospholipid bilayer
fluid portion of the membrane
Passive transport
includes simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis
Osmosis
the Diffusion of Water Across Membranes
Active transport
uses energy to move molecules against their concentration gradients.
endocytosis
Cells engulf particles or fluids
Pinocytosis
moves liquids into the cell.
Phagocytosis
Moves Large Particles into the Cell
Exocytosis
Moves Material Out of the Cell
Membrane Traffic
1. mRNA leaves nucleus. mRNA leaves nucleus.
2. Proteins synthesized on ribosomes.
3. Protein-filled vesicles travel to Golgi Complex.
4. Proteins are sorted and repackaged.
5. Digestive proteins are packaged in lysosomes.
6. Others are packages to be released from the cell.
Energy
potential and kinetic
Potential energy
stored energy
Kinetic energy
energy of movement
First Law of Thermodynamics
As long as no energy enters or exits a system, the total amount of energy in a system remains constant, though the energy form may change.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
As long as no energy enters or exits a system, the amount of useful energy decreases as energy is converted from one form to another. AND/OR processes that proceed spontaneously result in an increase in randomness/disorder of the system over time.
endergonic reaction
he products have more energy than the reactants do; the reaction removes the energy from the surroundings.
activation energy
All reactions require an initial input of energy
exergonic reaction
the products have less energy than the reactants do; the reactants release energy to surroundings.
Enzymes
catalysts that decrease the amount of activation energy required for a certain reaction, therefore adding speed to the reaction.
The ________ binds to the molecules or molecules it is going to affect, forming an enzyme-substrate complex. The bond is usually by means of relatively weak chemical bonds. They are substrate/reaction-specific and are reusable. The _______ function is determined by its tertiary structure.
Two factors that may affect _______ are pH and temperature.
Glycolysis
occurs in the cytoplasm. the breaking down of glucose from a 6-carbon sugar to 2 molecules of a 3-molecule pyruvate.
What follows __________ is determined by the presence of oxygen. If yes, then it will proceed to the Krebs Cycle. If not, then it will go to fermentation to regenerate electron carriers in order for __________ to work again. __________ makes a net 2ATP.
Krebs Cycle
The enzymes for the ___________ are located in the mitochondrial matrix. several reduction processes occur - 3NAD+ -> 3NADH and FAD -> FADH2. ADP -> ATP and 2 CO2 are released.

This process repeats twice for both pyruvate molecules. Thus, all the 6 original carbons are used up and the result is a total of 2ATP, 8NADH, and 2FADH2.
Electron Transport System
hose for the ________________ are located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The electron carriers, NADH and FADH2 lend electrons to the ______________. As they pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane, they lose some energy.

Here, the electrons attract a proton in your body, hydrogen. The energy from electrons is used to pump protons across the membrane, and the gradient of protons then becomes potential energy.
The final electron acceptor is oxygen. 2 hydrogens + ½ oxygen + electron = H2O, or water, which is a waste product.
respiration
The synthesis of ATP by the cell using both the Krebs Cycle and an electron transport chain
pyruvate
product of glycolysis
acetyl CoA
Pyruvate becomes __________ with the help of coenzyme A and the release of CO2 because only 2-carbon molecules can enter the Krebs Cycle.
ATP synthase
The proton gradient is used by a membrane protein, ____________, that synthesizes ATP. It allows protons to diffuse across the gradient because of their concentration gradient, and uses the energy to create ATP from ADP.
oral cavity
Food enters the ___________, where it begins physical digestion. Food is bit into smaller pieces to increase the surface area of chemical digestion.
Salivary glands
release saliva, which contains amylase. Carbohydrates are broken down - for example, starch is broken down into glucose.
amylase
an enzyme that breaks down polysaccharides.
esophagus
where it is propelled into the stomach when the epiglottis covers the air pathway.
stomach
food goes through physical digestion as muscle contractions churn the food. It stores ingested food to release slowly into the small intestine.
Hydrochloric acid
activates pepsin
Pepsin
protease enzyme, breaking down proteins to peptides.
Mucus
protection, prevents the stomach from self-digestion.
liver
produces bile. It also stores fats and carbohydrates, regulates blood glucose levels, synthesizes blood proteins, stores vitamins, and detoxifies the body.
bile
produced by liver and is stored in the gallbladder. a fat emulsifier, which breaks fat globules to increase surface area for chemical digestion.
gallbladder
stores bile
pancreas
creates pancreatic juice and provides an abundance of enzymes that digest food later on in the small intestine.
pancreatic juice
provides an abundance of enzymes that digest food later on in the small intestine.
small intestine
chemical breakdown and absorption of food molecules occur with the help from pancreatic juice and bile.
Lipase
from the pancreatic juice then takes over the chemical digestion - fat globules are broken down to glycerol and fatty acids.
Peptidases
break down small peptides into amino acids through hydrolysis.
Dissacharidases/carbohydrases
breaks down dissaccharides into monosaccharides through hydrolysis.
villi
absorbs Amino acids, glycerol, fatty acids, and monosaccharides
Fiber
usually in the form of cellulose, is indigestible and stimulates the release of H2O. It bulks up the waste and keeps the intestines healthy.
large intestine
he bacteria created there produce vitamins that are absorbed along with water and salts. Elimination of undigested material occurs here, where it is led through the rectum out the anus.
Gastrin
Hormone, Stimulates gastric acid secretion and proliferation of gastric epithelium. stimulated by Presence of polypeptides/amino acids in gastric lumen.
Secretin
Hormone, Stimulates secretion of water and bicarbonate from the pancreas and bile ducts. stimulated by Acidic pH in the lumen of the small intestine (from food immediately from the stomach)
Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
Hormone, Inhibits gastric secretion and motility and potentiates release of insulin from beta cells in response to elevated blood glucose concentration. stimulated by Presence of fat and glucose in the small intestine.
Water
carries nutrients in your body and regulates body temperature by dissipating heat. H2O
Vitamins
regulates many functions of the body, some offering a boost in immune defenses.
Minerals
regulates many functions of the body, combining to maintain structures in your body.
Fats
storage of energy and energy production.
Closed Circulatory Systems
Humans and Earthworms
Open Circulatory Systems
Fish/Crayfish
superior vena cava
vein above the heart
inferior vena cava
vein below the heart
veins
structures that bring deoxygenated blood to the heart from the muscles
right atrium
entrance of deoxygenated blood from vena cava
tricuspid valve
blood passes through from right atrium
right ventricle
entrance of blood passed through tricuspid valve from right atrium
pulmonary valve
blood passes through from right ventricle to go to pulmonary arteries
pulmonary arteries
lead to the left and right lungs.
pulmonary veins
entrance of oxygenated blood
left atrium
entrance of oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins
mitral valves
blood passes through from left atrium to left ventricle
left ventricle
blood passes from mitral valves to go to aorta
aortic valve
blood passed from left ventricle to the aorta
aorta
Entrance of newly oxygenated blood, the newly oxygenated blood goes to the rest of the body through arteries
cohesion-adhesion hypothesis
Water molecules are cohesive to each other because they have slight charges on each end, and are attracted to each other. Water molecules are also adhesive to other charged substances for the same reason.
capillary action
the rising of water, occurs because charged groups on the walls of the tube pull the water molecules up (adhesion) and the other water molecules are also dragged up by cohesion.
pressure-flow hypothesis
Water and dissolved sugars move from the source (areas of high pressure) to the sink (area of low pressure).
Koch's Postulates
1. The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but should not be found in healthy animals.
2. The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture.
3. The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.
4. The microorganism must be re-isolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.
Non-specific external barriers
The skin and mucus membranes.
Non-specific internal defenses
These include phagocytes and natural killer cells, fever, and inflammation.
Specific internal defenses
These include T and B lymphocytes that engage in cell-mediated and humoral immunity.
Inflammation
1. Tissue is wounded and bacteria enter.
2. Wounded tissues send signals to increase white-blood cell production and stimulate local mast cells to release histamine.
3. Histamine causes the capillaries to become leaky and increase blood flow.
4. White blood cells and fluids seep out of the capillaries. White blood cells engulf the pathogen while the fluids cause swelling at the wound.
5. Local capillary clotting occurs to prevent future invasions.
Humoral Immunity
1. Each B-cell contains only one type of antibody receptor on its surface, and has a matching antigen. The antigen is identified by one of the B-cells.

2. B-cells produce memory cells, which are kept for the future so that immune responses to a certain antigen will be faster and plasma cells, which release antibodies that kill the bacteria.
Cell Mediated Immunity
1. In order to be activated, T-cells must have viruses, or viral antigens, presented to them by other cells such as macrophages.

2. When activated, T-cells produce memory cells to speed up future invasions by the same virus, cytotoxic cells to search for the viruses and kill them, and helper T-cells to amplify the immune response of both B and T cells.
B-cells
produced and matured in the bone marrow, and then sent out to lymph nodes and the circulatory system.
T-cells
produced in the bone marrow, and mature in the thymus.
HIV
retrovirus, using reverse transcriptase to go from messenger RNA to DNA.
It fuses with the host cell, causing the immune system to attack the host's body.
respiratory system
1. A large surface area compared to the volume of the organism
2. A moist surface
3. Thin cell linings on respiratory surfaces.
Photosynthesis
Light to energy reaction in plants, 6 CO2 +6 H20 --> C6H12O6 + 6O2. Light dependent and light independent reactions
Light dependent reaction
Occurs in thylakoid membrane, in: water and sunlight. Out: ATP, NADPH
Light independent reaction
Calvin Cycle or C3 Pathway. Occurs in stroma, in: ATP, NADPH, CO2, H2O. Out: Glucose, ADP, NADP+
Thylakoid
sacs, light dependent reaction occurs in membrane
Granum
Stack of thylakoids
Stroma
Fluid inside chloroplast, light independent reaction (Calvin Cycle)
Photons
Packets in which light travels through. Can be absorbed, transmitted, or reflected.
Chlorophyll (a and b)
reflects green light but absorbs all other wavelengths
Carotenoids
(accessory pigments) reflect yellow and red light but absorbs all other wavelengths
Photosystem II
Chlorophyll absorbs photon, reaction center releases excited electrons
Photosystem I
After first ETC, repeated reactions of photosystem II
Electron Transport Chain (in plants)
Within it, electrons move to a lower energy state. Energy and the electrons are used to make ATP from ADP and then NADPH from NADP. Both products end up in stroma.
Photorespiration
When conditions are hot and dry, plants shut their stomata. This prevents intake of CO2 and leads to a buildup of O2. The enzyme that coverts RuBP into PGA can use O2 instead but no PGA is created by CO2.
C4 Pathway
Chloroplasts are present in both mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. In mesophyll cells, RuBP is replaced by PEP. CO2 reacts with PEP to form a 4 carbon molecule. O2 cannot replace CO2 in this reaction.
CAM Pathway
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. In mesophyll cells, RuBP is replaced by PEP. CO2 reacts with PEP to form a 4 carbon molecule. (Occurs at night). Calvin Cycle occurs during the day.
nephron
site of most kidney activity, waste is removed from the blood
urethra
tube underneath the urinary bladder in which urine is drained into during urination
renal medulla
location of nephrons
excretion
the release of substances and waste products from the body
urea
a conversion of ammonia and later into urine, a product of amino acid metabolism
renal pelvis
an extention of the ureter
reabsorption
components of the filtrate are transferred to the capillaries surrounding the nephron
bulk flow
movement of fluids or gases through large spaces from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure
diffusion
movement of individual molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
hemoglobin
protein containing iron that binds oxygen within red blood cells
filtration
process in which waste, water, and nutrients are removed from the blood
equilibrium
molecules cease movement along their concentration gradient
systolic pressure
ventricles contract (high pressure)
diastolic pressure
pause between ventricle contractions (no beat, low pressure)