29 terms

Science Chapter 3 Vocabulary

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weathering
the chemical and physical processes that break down a rock
erosion
the process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another
sediment
small pieces of rock or the remains of organisms deposited by erosion
deposition
process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
gravity
the attractive force between objects; the force that moves objects downhill
mass movement
any one of several processes by which gravity moves sediment downhill (rapid or slow)
runoff
water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground
flood plain
the flat, wide area of land along a river
meander
a looplike bend in the course of a river
oxbow lake
a meander cut off from a river
delta
a landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake
groundwater
water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers
glacier
any large mass of ice that moves slowly over land
continental glacier
type of glacier that covers much of a continent or large island
valley glacier
a long, narrow glacier that forms when snow and ice build up in a mountain valley
till
sediment deposited directly by a glacier
moraine
a ridge formed by the till deposited at the edge of a glacier
headland
part of the shore that sticks out into the ocean
beach
wave-washed sediment along a coast
longshore drift
movement of water and sediment down a beach caused by waves coming in to shore at an angle
spit
a beach formed by longshore drift that projects like a finger out into the water
deflation
the process by which wind removes surface material
sand-dune
a deposit of wind-blown sand
loess
a wind-formed deposit made of fine particles of clay and silt
soil
the loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow
uniformitarianism
the principal that states the geologic process that operate today also operated in the past
creep
the slow movement of rock and soil downhill
horizon
a layer of soil that differs in color, texture, and composition from the layers above or below it
humus
dark-colored organic material in soil