51 terms

The New Testament World of Jesus

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Palestine
The holy land at the time of Jesus is described in its geography, major regions, and prominent city.
The Promised Land; the Holy Land. It bridges 2 continents, playing a key international commercial, political, and cultural role.
Galilee
In north, center of Jesus' earthly ministry. Rich land, mainly Jews. Spoke Aramaic.
Judea
At south of Palestine, dry, barren, craggy region. Place Jesus returned to after the Babylonian Exile. Jerusalem, Temple located in here.
Sepphoris
the former impressive capital of Galilee, built by Herod Antipas. provided work for carpenters Jesus and Joseph. Jesus avoid it because Herod Antipas and other oppressed him. Center of trade and commerce.
Koine Greek
Language of the originally written New Testaments, spoken by the ordinary people.
Comparisons
Except for Arabic, the Semitic languages do not have a special way express the comparative and superlative degrees. Do not have words "best" or "better".
Synagogue
in every town
‣ build near water -- purification ritual (after periods for women, touch unclean and killing)
‣ Mikvah -- purification bath
‣ needed -- 10 men over 13 to start a synagogues
‣ pray -- everyday -- shema -- 3 times per day
‣ Sabbath -- once a week
‣ boys come to synagogue school every morning and help with father at afternoon, girls stay
at home to learn to cook and girl stuff.
‣ pray, school, Mikvah, no sacrifice
Passover (Pesah)
Most important festival, celebrate the Chosen People's libration from Egypt. Rituals -- slaughter lamb and eating a seder meal in Holy City. Jesus' last supper.
Hanukkah
Feast of Dedication, in December, to remember the Temples's rededication, Maccabean Revolt.
Seleucids
Robbed Jerusalem, wanted everyone to be greek.
Maccabean Revolt
Judas Maccabees
‣ "The Hammer" and his brother tried to rebel against Rome
‣ light candles to pretend more people in the temple -- trick in rebels.
• Miracles -- more oils appeared and lasted for 8 days
• defeated Romans
• Feast of Hanukkah -- light lights for 8 day
Archelaus
Leader of Judea and Samaria. Son of Herod the Great. Extremely unpopular.
Philemon/slavery
slaves were treated nicely -- been a slave before, allowed religion worship and other religious activity. Mostly servants of wealthy people and enjoyed protection of Jewish laws. Were not pressed like the African slaves.
TANAK
Jews abbreviate their holy writings as TANAK. T=Torah; N=Nebiim; K=Ketubim.
Sadducees
Wealthy, priests and aristocrats. Work in the temple, offer sacrifices & conduct worship, rotation periods when they are in the temple. Found in Jerusalem. Powerful allies of Romans, disappear after temple is destroyed. Theologically conservative, accept Torah only, no oral interpretation of the law. Don't believe in resurrection of dead; angles; life after death.
Jonathan Ben Zakkai
The leader who reorganized Judaism.
Gentiles
a term for non-Jews. Jews avoid them.
Four major terrains of Palestine
Coastal plains; mountain range; great Rift Valley; Transjordan.
Samaria
Samaritans descended from foreigners which intermarried with old Israel tribe, recognized Abraham as their common father. Recognize as foreigners by Jews. Worship Law of Moses. Enemies with Judea Jews.
Jerusalem
Main city in Judea, have the Temple. Political, economic, and religious center if Judasim.
Aramaic
Jesus's daily language. Official language of Assyrian and later Persian Empire. "Abba" Aramaic for father, address God.
Latin
Government (roman) language. Jesus probably speak it.
Exaggeration
Use of hyperbole, or exaggeration, to drive home a point was common in Aramaic. Exaggerated statements are to be taken figuratively.
Shema
Prayer, the confession of faith. Says 5 times a day by faithful Jewish.
Pentecost
Feast held 50 days after Passover. Mean "fifth", celebrate the God's giving of
Pax Romana
Peace of Rome
‣ wealth & power & trade & slaves
Diaspora
the Jewish refugees who were forced to leave their country and escaped to other countries during the Babylonian Exile.
Herod the Great
Built Masada, Ceasaria (ports), aquaducts, hippodroma, palaces. his tomb. Appointed as the king of Jews by Romans. Local ruler. Ordered death of every Jewish boys under 2 killed. Killed his wife and 2 of his sons because he was afraid they will take his place. Paranoid personality. Pass the throne to 3 sons after his death. Archelaus, Philip, and Herod Antipas.
Pontius Pilate
Cruel heartless stern ruler, who did nothing to endure himself to Jews. Ruling from seacoast town of Caesarea. Bearing the emperor's image, robbed the Temple, infiltrate a crowd of protesting Jews and kill them. Exiled to Gaul.
Concept of a Messiah
anointed one", first applied to King of Israel. Believed the messiah would usher God's Kingdom or reign. The coming of messiah as a apocalyptic event.
Resurrection
Yahweh will judge the dead by rewarding the good and punishing the evil. Jews do not believe in personal resurrection.
Sanhedrin
71 member ruling body that makes laws, enforces them and is the high court for the Jewish people. Most composed of Sadducees along with a few Pharisees.
Essenes/Qumran
Apocalyptic group -- Messiah would come after a dramatic event. Saw themselves as God's soldiers and stayed physically fit, lived strict and celibate life. Dressed in skins or white garments and ate locusts and honey. Lived in Qumran Valley. Believed in ritual purity, took many purification baths during each day, avoided temple in Jerusalem. Baptized others who repented. Shared goods in common, served the poor, wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls. John the Baptist was a member.
Women
Lower than men, eat and pray separately. Prepare the food and take care of the household. Consider as men's property and to weak to follow the Law. Jesus treats women as equal.
Sea of Galilee
Provided a livelihood for many fisherman.
Mount Gerizim
Mountain of sacrifice. Samaritan built a Temple on top of this Mountain. But the Judea Jews view this as appropriate, because the Temple is in Jerusalem, so they destroy it, making them enemies
Idumea
Brought under Jewish control by John Hyrcanus in 125 BC. Absorbed into Judea under Herod the Great's reign.
Hebrew
Language of Jesus, used in teaching in synagogue.
Parallel statements
Semitic languages. Aramaic, often expresses an important thought a second time in a slightly different form. Both forms are complete, saying the same thing.
INRI
Means "on a crucifix", abbreviates the Latin words that would be posted before Jesus' crucification. "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews".
Temple
many many synagogues, ONE Temple
◦ build on mountain in Jerusalem (top), to get near God
◦ sacrifices -- animals: lamb, goats, doves
◦ Only Priests allowed to do the sacrifices
◦ Pray
‣ pilgrimage -- once a year
‣ Passover
‣ Mecca once in life time
◦ First born son
Tabernacles
Fall harvest celebration. Pilgrims to Jerusalem built huts out of branches to recall the time when Jews wondered in the wildness. Approach Temple in procession waving branches while praising God.
Antiochus
Jews -- repressing their religion
‣ robbed temples
‣ massacre Jews
‣ forbidden the reading of Torah
‣ No circumcision for boys
‣ forced Jews to eat pork and shellfish
‣ took away the Ark of the Covenant and put a Zeus statue in the temple
Faithful Remnant
Jewish who returned back from other countries to Israel after the Exile.
Herod Antipas
Built Masada, Ceasaria (ports), aquaducts, hippodroma, palaces. his tomb. Appointed as the king of Jews by Romans. Local ruler. Ordered death of every Jewish boys under 2 killed. Killed his wife and 2 of his sons because he was afraid they will take his place. Paranoid personality. Pass the throne to 3 sons after his death. Archelaus, Philip, and Herod Antipas.
Publicans
Jewish tax collectors, who collaborated with the Romans in Exacting taxes. Not popular.
Torah/Pentateuch
Torah is the Law or divine teaching revealed to Judaism. It is the foundation of the Jewish religion and is found in the Pentateuch. Pentateuch is the name for the first 5 books of the Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. It contains the Law (Torah).
Angels/demons
Angels are God's messengers; angels are created beings that possess free will and intelligence but who are pure spirits, without bodies.
Pharisees
Means "the separated ones". Middle and upper class lay men, who were actively pursue holiness; experts in elaborate oral interpretation of the law. Great influence over Jewish. Preserve Judaism and reshape it after the temple is destroyed. Form cannon of the Jewish (Protestant Bible).
Zealots
Political group that despised Roman rule, and go around and do bad things. Tried on several occasions to overthrow the Romans. and then the Romans killed them all. Barabbas was a Zealot. City of Masada.
People of the land
land"Jewish people, who were the "Chosen Ones".
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...