elizabethan period and Jacobean period
-London expands greatly during he reign of Queen Elizabeth I
-largest and wealthiest capital in the world
-population swollen by country folk (escaping the restrictions of rural life and famine, by immigrants from Europe)
-narrow, traffic crowded streets were lined by shops and workshops, by civic mansions and rich halls of the trade guilds, and by the inns of court, haunts of lawyers and young gentlemen continuing their studies after leaving oxford or Cambridge
-the class system was strict - clothes were appropriate to rank, whether gentlemen, citizen, craftsman, or laborer.
-London was not clear or healthy
-Sanitation was crude (Thames was a beautiful sewer)
-deadly diseases (plague, malaria, small pox) high mortality rate
-men carried weapons (swords and pistols)
-cheats, tricksters, and thieves everywhere
-country air grew more difficult
-inflation was unchecked and money flowed freely
-expensive luxuries = nice clothes and tabaco (recent import from new world)
-Edmund Spenser wrote Amoretti about his courtship with Elizabeth Boyle and their eventual wedding in June of 1594.
-Spenser follows the Petrarchan style; however, one notable difference is that the women that Petrarch writes about are unavailable to him while Spenser wrote about a woman that he actually could have and did have
-Spenser is telling his poem that it will be so happy when his beloved's hands hold its pages in her Lilly white hands.
-Like other Petrarchan heroines, Spenser's beloved holds all of the power; she could kill him (metaphorically speaking) by rejecting his poem, which would be like rejecting his love. His soul would die without his beloved's love.
-She holds his poem and heart in "loves soft bands" (bonds- something that binds or restrains). Her hands could kill him ("dead doing might") or give him life. The poem and his heart trembles with the anticipation of her love
- what are the three things he addresses? lines, leaves, and rhymes
-what does he hope their combined effect will have on the lady? it will please her
Happy ye leaves when as those lily hands,
Which hold my life in their dead doing might,
Shall handle you and hold in loves soft bands,
Like captives trembling at the victors sight.
And happy lines, on which with starry light,
Those lamping eyes will deign sometimes to look
And read the sorrows of my dying spright,
Written with tears in harts close bleeding book.
And happy rhymes bath'd in the sacred brooke
Of Helicon whence she is derived is,
When ye behold that Angels blessed look,
My souls long lacked food, my heavens bliss.
Leaves, lines, and rhymes, seek her to please alone,
Whom if ye please, I care for other none.
p. 241 -spenser
My hungry eyes through greedy covetize
still to behold the object of their paine:
with no contentment can themselves suffize,
but having pine and having not complaine.
For lacking it they cannot lyfe sustayne,
and having it they gaze on it the more:
in their amazement lyke Narcissus vaine
whose eyes him starv'd: so plenty makes me poore.
Yet are mine eyes so filled with the store
of that faire sight, that nothing else they brooke,
but lothe the things which they did like before,
and can no more endure on them to looke.
All this worlds glory seemeth vayne to me,
and all their showes but shadowes saving she.
-who do speakers eyes desire? he wants to see his beloved woman that he is separated from, loves her, can't live w/o her, so consumed w/her, can't look away, now that he has seen her he hates looking at anything else, world seems empty, she is the only thing that matters
-describe the state that desire produces in him? it makes him feel sad and helpless
p. 242 -spenser
-why does the lady say his efforts are futile? they are human and will die leaving nothing behind in remembrance of them
-summarize his response. he disagreed saying their love shall live on
-what connection does the poem make between immorality and poetry? he says his "verse" will also live on forever
One day I wrote her name upon the strand,
But came the waves and washed it away:
Again I write it with a second hand,
But came the tide, and made my pains his prey.
Vain man, said she, that doest in vain assay,
A mortal thing so to immortalize,
For I myself shall like to this decay,
And eek my name be wiped out likewise.
Not so, (quod I) let baser things devise
To die in dust, but you shall live by fame:
My verse, your virtues rare shall eternize,
And in the heavens write your glorious name.
Where whenas death shall all the world subdue,
Our love shall live, and later life renew.
-a) in sonnet 31, how does the moon appear to the speaker? it is climbing the sky's sadly and silently and has a very pale and sickly face
-b) to what does the speaker attribute the moon's mood? it is more of a sad, somber poem, he is connected to the moon because he is also sad because he is love sick, both love sick
-c) how does the speaker reveal his own situation by addressing the moon? he asks the moon about the love there as if he isn't happy with the love he is experiencing
With how sad steps, O Moon, thou climb'st the skies!
How silently, and with how wan a face!
What, may it be that even in heav'nly place
That busy archer his sharp arrows tries!
Sure, if that long-with love-acquainted eyes
Can judge of love, thou feel'st a lover's case,
I read it in thy looks; thy languish'd grace
To me, that feel the like, thy state descries.
Then, ev'n of fellowship, O Moon, tell me,
Is constant love deem'd there but want of wit?
Are beauties there as proud as here they be?
Do they above love to be lov'd, and yet
Those lovers scorn whom that love doth possess?
Do they call virtue there ungratefulness?
-a) what benefits does the speaker attribute to sleep in lines 1-4 of sonnet 39? it is a refreshing thing, the healer of sorrow, gives money to the poor, releases prisoners, and an indifferent judge between the high and low-sleeping is same for high and low people (you can be whatever you want to be in your dreams
-b) what reward does he promise sleep in lines 13-14? he will be more lively and joyful in his sleep, if he can go to sleep he will be with Stella so sleep can then see Stella
c) judging from this reward, why does he crave sleep? he is tired of the problems he faces and needs to be refreshed
-What conclusion can you draw about each speaker's relationship with his lady? neither speaker is in a relationship that gives them joy in their lives
Come Sleep! O Sleep, the certain knot of peace,
The baiting-place of wit, the balm of woe,
The poor man's wealth, the prisoner's release,
Th' indifferent judge between the high and low.
With shield of proof shield me from out the prease
Of those fierce darts despair at me doth throw:
O make in me those civil wars to cease;
I will good tribute pay, if thou do so.
Take thou of me smooth pillows, sweetest bed,
A chamber deaf to noise and blind to light,
A rosy garland and a weary head:
And if these things, as being thine by right,
Move not thy heavy grace, thou shalt in me,
Livelier than elsewhere, Stella's image see.
-shepherd's offerings to his love
1. bed of roses
2. thousand fragrant posies
3. a cap of flowers
4. an embroidered skirt made of leaves
5. gown made of the finest wool
6. slippers w/gold buckles
7. straw and ivy bud belt (w/coral clasps and amber studs)
-seems desperate but still confident
-asking her to BE his love, not already his love
-he wants to give her the world
-overall theme: he desires this fantasy life with his love
Come live with me and be my love,
And we will all the pleasures prove,
That Valleys, groves, hills, and fields,
Woods, or steepy mountain yields.
And we will sit upon the Rocks,
Seeing the Shepherds feed their flocks,
By shallow Rivers to whose falls
Melodious birds sing Madrigals.
And I will make thee beds of Roses
And a thousand fragrant posies,
A cap of flowers, and a kirtle
Embroidered all with leaves of Myrtle;
A gown made of the finest wool
Which from our pretty Lambs we pull;
Fair lined slippers for the cold,
With buckles of the purest gold;
A belt of straw and Ivy buds,
With Coral clasps and Amber studs:
And if these pleasures may thee move,
Come live with me, and be my love.
The Shepherds' Swains shall dance and sing
For thy delight each May-morning:
If these delights thy mind may move,
Then live with me, and be my love.
-sir walter raleigh
-nymph: a mythological spirit of nature imagined as a beautiful maiden inhabiting rivers, woods, or other locations
-reply to passionate shepherd
-saying he can never actually give her all the stuff he promises
-but if and only if it was possible she could begin to contemplate being with him
If all the world and love were young,
And truth in every Shepherd's tongue,
These pretty pleasures might me move,
To live with thee, and be thy love.
Time drives the flocks from field to fold,
When Rivers rage and Rocks grow cold,
And Philomel becometh dumb,
The rest complains of cares to come.
The flowers do fade, and wanton fields,
To wayward winter reckoning yields,
A honey tongue, a heart of gall,
Is fancy's spring, but sorrow's fall.
Thy gowns, thy shoes, thy beds of Roses,
Thy cap, thy kirtle, and thy posies
Soon break, soon wither, soon forgotten:
In folly ripe, in reason rotten.
Thy belt of straw and Ivy buds,
The Coral clasps and amber studs,
All these in me no means can move
To come to thee and be thy love.
But could youth last, and love still breed,
Had joys no date, nor age no need,
Then these delights my mind might move
To live with thee, and be thy love.
-Donne, Herbert, Crashaw, Marvell, Cowley, Vaughn
-metaphysical: dealing w/ relationship between spirit and matter or ultimate nature of reality
-use ordinary speech mixed with puns, paradoxes, and conceits
-exaltation of wit (nimbleness of thought); sense of fancy (imagination); originality of figures of speech
-terminology from science or law commonly used
-poems in the form of an argument
-draws on ideas from renaissance neo-platonism in metaphysical love poetry (idea of union of lovers' souls)
-neoplatonism: combining christianity w/ the philosophy of plato, seeks to find god in the finite
-charles I: reigning monarch at end of donne's career; donne spans elizabethan era, jacobean era, and charles I (C17-C18)
extended metaphor = conceit
i think unusual metaphor is just the 3 conceits/ extended metaphors from meditation (but not totally sure)
1. the body: humanity is a body, the church is the body, jesus is the head
2. book: all of humanity is the author, all the same book, each person is a chapter, heaven is the library
3. island: no man is an island, we are all a continent, all humanity is interconnected
-treasure: suffering is a treasure, affliction can teach you lessons, strengthen your relationship with God, earn peace and happiness in heaven, suffered from leads to a reward in heaven, cash it in later when you die (paradox-suffering=treasure)
-he is not leaving her because he loves someone else, he has an obligation to go
-he feels like leaving her is like him dying (over dramatic)
-not actually dying, but everyone dies at some point
-uses imagery of the sun (comes up every morning, leaves every night, but always returns), he will be faster than the sun, and as reliable as the sun
-tells her not to cry or sigh because it hurts him too
Sweetest love, I do not go,
For weariness of thee,
Nor in hope the world can show
A fitter love for me;
But since that I
Must die at last, 'tis best
To use myself in jest
Thus by feign'd deaths to die.
Yesternight the sun went hence,
And yet is here today;
He hath no desire nor sense,
Nor half so short a way:
Then fear not me,
But believe that I shall make
Speedier journeys, since I take
More wings and spurs than he.
O how feeble is man's power,
That if good fortune fall,
Cannot add another hour,
Nor a lost hour recall!
But come bad chance,
And we join to'it our strength,
And we teach it art and length,
Itself o'er us to'advance.
When thou sigh'st, thou sigh'st not wind,
But sigh'st my soul away;
When thou weep'st, unkindly kind,
My life's blood doth decay.
It cannot be
That thou lov'st me, as thou say'st,
If in thine my life thou waste,
That art the best of me.
Let not thy divining heart
Forethink me any ill;
Destiny may take thy part,
And may thy fears fulfil;
But think that we
Are but turn'd aside to sleep;
They who one another keep
Alive, ne'er parted be.
-he is telling his lady friend not to be sad even though he is leaving
-uses math (the compass) to describe his love
-the two legs of the compass are always connected even when they are far apart
-the legs always come back together
-no end to a circle no end to their love
-when you flatten gold to a very very thin little sheet it is still gold just like love with always be love no matter how far apart ACTUAL POEM As virtuous men pass mildly away,
And whisper to their souls to go,
Whilst some of their sad friends do say
The breath goes now, and some say, No:
So let us melt, and make no noise,
No tear-floods, nor sigh-tempests move;
'Twere profanation of our joys
To tell the laity our love.
Moving of th' earth brings harms and fears,
Men reckon what it did, and meant;
But trepidation of the spheres,
Though greater far, is innocent.
Dull sublunary lovers' love
(Whose soul is sense) cannot admit
Absence, because it doth remove
Those things which elemented it.
But we by a love so much refined,
That our selves know not what it is,
Inter-assured of the mind,
Care less, eyes, lips, and hands to miss.
Our two souls therefore, which are one,
Though I must go, endure not yet
A breach, but an expansion,
Like gold to airy thinness beat.
If they be two, they are two so
As stiff twin compasses are two;
Thy soul, the fixed foot, makes no show
To move, but doth, if the other do.
And though it in the center sit,
Yet when the other far doth roam,
It leans and hearkens after it,
And grows erect, as that comes home.
Such wilt thou be to me, who must,
Like th' other foot, obliquely run;
Thy firmness makes my circle just,
And makes me end where I begun.
1.Why, according to Donne's poem, should Death not be proud? Offer a line(s) as evidence.
Death will also die, it's not as might as it seems (line 14)
2. What literary device does Donne use throughout the poem in addressing Death? Provide a line(s) as evidence.
personification-he makes death a human. ex: "mighty and dreadful, for thou art not so" (line 2)
Direct address talking directly to death
3. According to the poem, what does Death resemble?
it resembles a slave "thou art slave to fate, chance, kings, and desperate men" death doesn't choose when people die
4. How is Death a "slave"?
it is a slave to humanity it how each person dies (by sickness, kings, desperate men, chance, fate, poison, and war) death should not think so highly of itself because it cannot work alone
5. "Death, thou shalt die." This is an example of what commonly used literary device? (Consider our notes on metaphysical poetry).
paradox, when you first read it you are confused like how can death die, its death! how can death die? maybe after you die you defeat death by reaching eternal life, or Jesus Christ sacrificing his life therefore defeating death
6.What truth does this line reveal/what does it mean?
death isn't the end of the world, you can live an eternal life afterwards in your afterlife
Diminishing death by saying death is peaceful like sleep it renews you, you look forward to sleep so death isn't as big of a deal
Death, be not proud, though some have called thee
Mighty and dreadful, for thou are not so;
For those whom thou think'st thou dost overthrow
Die not, poor Death, nor yet canst thou kill me.
From rest and sleep, which but thy pictures be,
Much pleasure; then from thee much more must flow,
And soonest our best men with thee do go,
Rest of their bones, and soul's delivery.
Thou'art slave to fate, chance, kings, and desperate men,
And dost with poison, war, and sickness dwell,
And poppy'or charms can make us sleep as well
And better than thy stroke; why swell'st thou then?
One short sleep past, we wake eternally,
And death shall be no more; Death, thou shalt die.
-1. the bell is representing like a reminder, ultimately signal that everyone will die and your death will affect everyone else's lives
2. Done points out that a very sick individual may be too sick to realize that the bell is tolling for him. He concludes that "perchance I may think myself so much beter than I am. . . they who are about me may have caused it to me toll for me, and I know not"; What does he mean by this?
it means that the bell is reminding the sick man of his upcoming death, the second part is talking about how each time someone he knows dies he dies a little too, so his death is coming also
3. Why does John Donne say he should be concerned about each childs baptism and each parishioners funeral in the church? Why does it affect him even if he doesnt know the child or the deceased parishioner?because every life affects him, even the person was just born or just died
4. translators are the means of death, bringing a person to the afterlife
5. no man can live completely on his own, every person is connected to someone else in some way
6. Why does Donne say Europe should be concerned if a single clod of land is washed away into the sea? How does that correspond to the way humanity should
be concerned if a single person dies?
he is saying that anything anyone else does affects him and his life, so if a single clod of land is washed away to sea it will affect him in some way, a loss to one person is a loss to everyone
7. Why does Donne think that "Any mans death diminishes me"?
because every death affects him, any time a person dies a little piece of him dies
8. Why should a person never "send to know" (i.e. ask) for whom a funeral bell is tolling? What is the inevitable answer?
everyone dies, humans are finite, someday the bell will ring for you
9. Explain the conceit about affliction or suffering being like buried gold inside a
mans bowels. How does Donne suggest we can benefit from the suffering of
people try to hide their suffering (like they bury their gold) and we can benefit from it because when you find you find someone's sadness you can empathize with them and get to know him on a deeper level
3 conceits/ extended metaphors
1. body: the body, humanity is a body, the church is the body, jesus is the head
2. book: humanity is the author, all the same book, each person is a chapter, heaven is the library
3. island: no man is an island, we are all a continent, all humanity is interconnected
-treasure: suffering is a treasure, affliction can teach you lessons, strengthen your relationship with God, earn peace and happiness in heaven, suffered from leads to a reward in heaven, cash it in later when you die (paradox: suffering=treasure)
prose from a collection of essays
-2 essential ideas that are representative of renaissance era in which it was written
-2 main themes: 1. people are not isolated- mankind (human kind) is interconnected; one persons death diminishes all mankind 2. awareness of mortality as a natural outgrowth of a time when death was constant companion of life; donne reminds reader that death is not so much to be feared as it would first seem
2 controlling images
1. island-interconnectedness of mankind; no one man (human) can exist on own/cut off from humanity
2. bell-awareness of human mortality; spread of plague in the renaissance made mortality a very real concern but death is not so much to be feared b/c it is a passing to a better life--one to be anticipated
-if time was not an issues he would love her ten years before the flood (just go back in time and love her), he would take hundreds of years to adore every part of her body (100 yrs for her eyes and forehead and 200 yrs for each breast), 30,000 yrs for the rest, she could reject him millions of time and he would have time to make her love him
-he is supposed to be sincere
-he wants them to love each other while they are young
-theme:"seize the day"-life is short, time is fleeting, enjoy the present moment
-Marvell: uses this theme with a mix of fancy and passionate urgency
Had we but world enough, and time,
This coyness, Lady, were no crime.
We would sit down and think which way
To walk and pass our long love's day.
Thou by the Indian Ganges' side
Shouldst rubies find: I by the tide
Of Humber would complain. I would
Love you ten years before the Flood,
And you should, if you please, refuse
Till the conversion of the Jews.
My vegetable love should grow
Vaster than empires, and more slow;
An hundred years should go to praise
Thine eyes and on thy forehead gaze;
Two hundred to adore each breast;
But thirty thousand to the rest;
An age at least to every part,
And the last age should show your heart;
For, Lady, you deserve this state,
Nor would I love at lower rate.
But at my back I always hear
Time's wingèd chariot hurrying near;
And yonder all before us lie
Deserts of vast eternity.
Thy beauty shall no more be found,
Nor, in thy marble vault, shall sound
My echoing song: then worms shall try
That long preserved virginity,
And your quaint honour turn to dust,
And into ashes all my lust:
The grave's a fine and private place,
But none, I think, do there embrace.
Now therefore, while the youthful hue
Sits on thy skin like morning dew,
And while thy willing soul transpires
At every pore with instant fires,
Now let us sport us while we may,
And now, like amorous birds of prey,
Rather at once our time devour
Than languish in his slow-chapt power.
Let us roll all our strength and all
Our sweetness up into one ball,
And tear our pleasures with rough strife
Thorough the iron gates of life:
Thus, though we cannot make our sun
Stand still, yet we will make him run.
-he is telling the women to make the most of their time while they are young
-tells them to get married now
-he compares them to the sun setting (lamp of heaven = sun)
-rosebud = infancy stage
-rose = middle / youth
-best part of life = youth
-Herrick: offers a more traditional version of the carpe diem theme
Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,
Old Time is still a-flying;
And this same flower that smiles today
Tomorrow will be dying.
The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun,
The higher he's a-getting,
The sooner will his race be run,
And nearer he's to setting.
That age is best which is the first,
When youth and blood are warmer;
But being spent, the worse, and worst
Times still succeed the former.
Then be not coy, but use your time,
And while ye may, go marry;
For having lost but once your prime,
You may forever tarry.
-not carpe diem
-represents tradition (society's approved values, beliefs, roles, and practices) in his fight for his king and his honor
-born into wealthy family; steadfast supporter of his king (charles)
-monarchy under assault during his lifetime --> civil war and execution of king
-before this war, Lovelace profited from royal connections and good looks; attended oxford, where he wrote a play, painted, and played music; story that king and queen like him so much they ordered oxford to grant a degree to him before he finished his studies
-chosen to argue before parliament that they should restore the king's authority; he was jailed
-wrote two famous poems while imprisoned, "to Althea, from prison" (affirmation of personal integrity despite imprisonment) and "to lucasta, on going to the wars"
-rejoined charles army after release from prison; they were defeated; puritans imprisoned him when he returned to England
-poet's thesis? he needs to honor his country, so he has to go to war
argument to back up thesis? reasons for going to war?
-must go to war to be honorable, and he can't love her unless he is honorable
-there's not another woman, his only other mistress is war
-can't love himself if he doesn't leave and therefore he couldn't love her
Tell me not, Sweet, I am unkind,
That from the nunnery
Of thy chaste breast and quiet mind
To wars and arms I fly.
True, a new mistress now I chase,
The first foe in the field;
And with a stronger faith embrace
A sword, a horse, a shield.
Yet this inconstancy is such
As you too shalt adore;
I could not love thee, Dear, so much,
Loved I not Honour more.
-lovelace writing from prison to his lady (how romantic)
-saying even though he is physically caged his mind is freer than anything else in the world
-simile in line 17-18
-uses birds frequently, this poem is his song (i know why the caged bird sings)
-"stone wall do not a prison make, nor iron bars a cage"
When Love with unconfinèd wings
Hovers within my Gates,
And my divine Althea brings
To whisper at the Grates;
When I lie tangled in her hair,
And fettered to her eye,
The Gods that wanton in the Air,
Know no such Liberty.
When flowing Cups run swiftly round
With no allaying Thames,
Our careless heads with Roses bound,
Our hearts with Loyal Flames;
When thirsty grief in Wine we steep,
When Healths and draughts go free,
Fishes that tipple in the Deep
Know no such Liberty.
When (like committed linnets) I
With shriller throat shall sing
The sweetness, Mercy, Majesty,
And glories of my King;
When I shall voice aloud how good
He is, how Great should be,
Enlargèd Winds, that curl the Flood,
Know no such Liberty.
Stone Walls do not a Prison make,
Nor Iron bars a Cage;
Minds innocent and quiet take
That for an Hermitage.
If I have freedom in my Love,
And in my soul am free,
Angels alone that soar above,
Enjoy such Liberty.
2nd EditionLawrence Scanlon, Renee H. Shea, Robin Dissin Aufses 3rd EditionDarlene Smith-Worthington, Sue Jefferson 3rd EditionDarlene Smith-Worthington, Sue Jefferson 3rd EditionDarlene Smith-Worthington, Sue Jefferson