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Terms in this set (114)

-two-thirds of all species occur in just four countries: Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia,
and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (high priority primate conservation areas)
-~60% of primate species, from all 16 extant families, are threatened with extinction because of unsustainable human activities
-the main threats to primate species are loss of habitat due to agriculture (76% of species), logging and wood harvesting (60%), and livestock farming and ranching (31%), as well as direct loss due to hunting and trapping (60%) . Other threats, such as
habitat loss due to road and rail construction, oil and gas drilling, and mining, affect 2 to 13% of primate species, and there are also emerging threats, such as pollution and climate change
-an example of construction effects: the development of 12 megadams in the state of
Sarawak, Malaysia, is expected to result in the loss of at least 2425 km2 of forest cover, affecting populations of the Endangered Müller's gibbon
-primates feeding on crops not a huge issue but likely to increase
-civil unrest bad bc of chemicals from bombs, bushmeat hunting
-Some primates are more behaviorally and ecologically resilient than others when faced with habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation. Bornean orangutans, for example, can survive, at least temporarily, in logged forests, Acacia plantations, and oil palm plantations (48). Baboons (Papio), Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus), and macaques (Macaca) are particularly adaptable and can survive even in urban areas. Chimpanzees appear to evaluate risks when crop-foraging and adjust their foraging patterns in deciding whether to exploit fragmented forests near humans. Bonobos tend to avoid areas of high human activity, fragmented forests, or both, and although this may suggest flexibility, the presence of humans appears to significantly reduce their
access to potentially available habitat
-primate hunting and trade
-Climate change may also force individuals out of protected areas, making them more vulnerable to hunting and other anthropogenic impacts, and range shifts among interacting species can affect food supplies and introduce new predators, pathogens,
and/or competitors
-several colobines (Trachypithecus, Presbytis, and Simias) in Southeast Asia are highly threatened island endemics and share biological traits known to increase their exposure and vulnerability to threats and extinction risks, such asrelatively large body mass, diurnal behavior, and restricted geographic ranges
-Many primates play key roles in ecosystem dynamics and sustainability and are central
figures in local and regional traditional knowledge, folklore, history, and even economies
-Solutions to the challenge of primate conservation must include reducing human birth rates and population growth, improving health, reducing poverty and gender biases in education, developing sustainable land-use initiatives, and preserving traditional livelihoods
-expansion of protected areas
-land-sharing & land-sparing
-mitigating illegal trade