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Chptr 3 Skeletal Tissues
Terms in this set (31)
What are the 4 major classifications of bones by shape?
Long bones, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones
Give an example of each one of the 4 major classifications of bones by shape.
Long bones = humerous, femur, radius, ulna
Short bones = carpals, tarsals
Flat bones = ribs, sternum, scapula
Irregular bones = vertebrae, facial bones,
Name and describe the major structural components of a long bone.
Bones have sensory and autonomic motor neurons (nerve cells)
Epiphysis (at both ends of the diaphysis: distal/proximal)
Articular cartilage (covers joint surfaces)
Periosteum outer most surface of the bone, contains sensory neurons
Medullary cavity (inside the shaft of the bone)
Bone marrow (red/yellow marrow)
Endosteum lines the medullary cavity
What are the 5 major functions of bones
1) Structural support of the body
2) Provide levers for body movements
3) Protection of underlying structures
4) Blood cell formation
5) Storage reservois ro calcium
Which function of bones is most important to the study of musculoskeletal movement and the field of kinesiology?
Structural support of the body and that bones provide levers for body movement.
What are the 2 major components of bone as a connective tissue?
Matrix (everything that is not bone cells). 2 components: organic and inorganic
What are the functions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts?
Osteoblasts=build up bone tissue by secreting matrix tissue of the bone.
Osteoclasts=break down bone tissue by breaking down the matrix tissue of the bone.
Compare and contract compact and spongy bone.
Compact bone=hard, has ordered arrangement of bony tissue
Spongy bone=irregular spaces that make it look like a sponge.
Where is compact bone found?
Primarily in the shafts of long bones. Also, the outer surface of the epiphyses of long bones and outer surface of all other bones (short, flat, irregular bones)
Where is spongy bone found?
Primarily found in the epiphyses of long bones and the center of all other bones (short, flat, and irregular bones)
Compare and contrast the 2 different methods of bone growth (endochondral and intramembranous ossification).
Endochrondral=ossification occurs within a cartilage model (long bones)
Intramembranous=ossification occurs within a membrane (fibrous membrane) (flat bones like of the skull)
What is the importance of fontanels to bodywork?
A fontanel is a soft spot on an infant's skull, therapist doing bodywork must use caution when working on the head during infant and child massage.
What are the 4 major fontanels? Where are they located? When does each one close?
1) Anterior (frontal) (1 to 2 years old)
2) Posterior (occipital) (6 months old)
3) Anterolateral (sphenoid area) (6 months old)
4) Posterolateral (mastoid area) (1 year old)
What are the steps involved in fracture healing?
Bone breaks (fractures)
Bleeding-blood clot (hematoma) forms
Callus forms (fibro-cartilage deposits)
Bony callus forms (calcification of the fibro-cartilage deposits)
What is Wolff's law?
Wolff's law states,"Calcium is laid down in response to stress." If physical stress is put on a bone, the bone adds bony matrix and thickens. Less physical stress, the bone loses bony matrix and thins.
What is piezoelectric effect
Piezoelectric effect (piezo means pressure) is a slight electric charge in tissue that happens when pressure is placed on a tissue. Piezoelectric effect is that although osteoblasts can lay down bone in ANY tissue, osteoclasts cannot break down (resorb) bone in piezoelectrically charged tissue.
How does piezoelectric effect explain Wolff's law?
1) greated bone mass of an area of bone under greater pressure
2) how bone is able to remodel & change shape in response to force
3) how & why trabeculae of spongy bone are laid down along the lines of stress
4) why it is SO important to begin movement as soon as is safe after injury/surgery
5) why movement & exercise are so vital to a healthy skeleton
How do tight muscles relate to Wolff's law, the development of DJD, and the role of a bodyworker or trainer when working on a client who has DJD?
DJD=Degenerative Joint Disease
Chronically tight muscles continually pull on their bony attachments. This creates stress on the bone and joint which can contribute to progression of arthritic changes of DJD. Also, the pain of tight muscles is often (not always) blamed to be the pain of DJD. As a MT accurate evaluation of a clients lifestyle, tightness of muscles and the stress placed on bones is essential.
What are the 3 major types of cartilage tissue?
1) Hyaline cartilage
3) Elastic cartilage
What is the role of proteoglycan molecules in fascial tissue?
Proteoglycan molecules are found in ground substance and function to bind and trap water in spaces among them - this is what keeps ground substance hydrated (prevents fascia from drying out & becoming brittle).
What is the definition of a tendon?
Connects a muscle to a bone and functions to pull its bony attachment creating movement.
What is the definition of a ligament?
Connects bone to bone (at a joint) and functions to create stability at a joint by holding the bones of the joint together.
What is the function of fibroblasts?
Fibroblasts are cells found in tendon and ligament tissue that create the fibrin threads of collagen.
How do myofibroblasts form in fascial tissue?
Fascial tissue subjected to physical stress increases its strength by the formation of myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts have the ability to contract like muscle tissue does.
What is the difference between a sprain and a strain?
Sprain is a ligament tear
Strain is a muscle tear
Compare and contrast a tendon with an aponeurosis.
They are the same thing - they just have different shapes. Tendon is round and cordlike, and aponeurosis is flat and broad.
Compare and contrast a bursa with a tendon sheath.
Bursa is an independant structure where a tendon sheath is a sheath like bursa that envelops a tendon. Both have similar tissue structure, but are diffenent in shape.
How does the concept of thixotropy apply to the fields of bodywork, movement, and/or exercise?
The concept of thixotrophy is the ability of the body soft tissues to change from a rigid gel state to a softer, more hydrated sol state. Its important to bodywork and exercise because the matrix component of CT has great thixotrophy, so it has the ability to become more fluid (softer). This allows greated blood and nutrient flow and freedom of joint movement.
How do the properties of stretch, tensile strength, elasticity, and plasticity apply to the delivery of bodywork and/or the performance of exercise?
Stretch: bodywork and stretching exercises gradually stretch and loosen tight (taut) tissues.
Tensile Strength: how much pulling force the tissue can withstand without tearing
Elasticity: elastin fibers in CT give CT the ability to return to its normal length after being stretched.
Plasticity: the ability of tissue to be remolded/altered and retain that new shape.
What is the difference between elasticity and plasticity of a tissue?
Elasticity component allows tissue to return to its original shape where plasticity allows tissue to retain a shape.
How does the concept of hysteresis apply to the fields of bodywork, movement, and/or exercise?
Hysteresis is a process where tissue loses fluid and minute structural damage from friction & heat from being overworked. Bodywork and exercise that results in hysteresis of tissue can caused by any type of stroke, technique, or movement that repetitively and excessively compresses or stretches the tissue.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chptr 1 Parts of the Human Body
Chptr 6 Classification of Joints
Chptr 12 Types of Muscle Contractions
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