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represents the number of waves emitted/wave cycles per second (frequency)

sine wave

simplest waveform, represents a pure tone, one that contains only a single frequency of vibration


the particular quality of a sound


various frequency components that make up timbre

complex sounds

contain internal variations in magnitude and direction of pressure change


position of a waveform in time

If waveforms rise and fall in synchrony, they are

in phase

if waveforms do not rise and fall in synchrony, they are

out of phase


the variation of the amplitude of the sound energy plotted against the duration of the sound


Rise time of the sound. Typically short compared to sustain and release times


Sound energy drop time. Typically very short compared to Sustain and Release times

sustaining level

the average intensity maintained while the sound source continues to supply energy to generate vibrations in the surrounding air


Period during which source supplies energy to maintain sound. Typically, very long--1 second to several minutes


Time required for sound to drop from sustaining level to inaudibility. May be very short or very long. Affected by reverberance of environment.


another name for the Envelope, the initials of the names of each subperiod


projects the voice forward, but does not enhance weaker pressure waves, which dissipate rapidly


contacts a large amount of air, increasing the intensity of the tuning fork

open field

space with no boundaries

closed field

space that is partly or completely limited by boundary surfaces


multiple reflections of sound off of barriers

reverberation time

duration of reflections

live space

space with a long reverberation time

dead space

space with little or no reverberation time

ring modes

frequencies at which a room tends to resonate


to vibrate or sound in a way similar to something else

Doppler effect

change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other

Direct Current (DC)

electric current that flows in a single direction, from the negative terminal to the positive terminal of a battery when connected to an external circuit

Alternating Current (AC)

cyclical alteration in direction of current flow


devices that produce AC by reversing polarity a given number of times in a second

current flow

free electrons move through circuit from negative terminal of voltage source, through circuit, returning to the positive terminal of the source

source of electrical pressure

the force which frees electrons from atoms, causing concentration of positive ions at one terminal of source and concentration of electrons at opposite terminal. Force used to separate electrons and ions is usually chemical (battery) or magnetic (generator)


any element which restricts passage of electrons thereby limiting the flow of current through the circuit

Ohm's law

the relationship of voltage, current and resistance in a circuit I = V/R (I=E/R)

Watt's Law

Watts = Amps x Volts (P=IE)


returning a circuit to earth

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Voice Recording