substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water; an acidic solution has a pH less than 7.
substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water; a basic solution has a pH greater than 7.
organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of on oxygen and two hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom.
energy-requiring process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are changed into different substances
pure substance composed of only one type of atom; cannot be broken down into another substance by physical or chemical means
protein that speeds up a biological reaction by lowering the activation energy needed to start the reaction
atom that is negatively or positively charged because it have lost or gained one or more electrons.
hydrophobic biological molecule composed mostly or carbon and hydrogen; fats, oils, and waxes are lipids
combination of two or more different substances in which each substance keeps its individual characteristics; can have a uniform composition (homogeneous) or have distinct areas of substances (heterogeneous).
a subunit of nucleic acid formed from a single sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
center of an atom; contains neutrons and protons. In eukaryotic cells, the central membrane-bound organelle that manages cellular functions and contains DNA
large molecule formed from smaller repeating units or identical, or nearly identical, compounds linked by covalent bonds.
substance formed by a chemical reaction; located on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation.
organic compound made of amino acids joined by peptide bonds; primary building block of organisms.
substance that exists before a chemical reaction starts; located on the left side of the arrow in a chemical reaction.
homogeneous mixture formed when a substance (the solute) is dissolved in another substance (the solvent).