building block of matter; contains subatomic particles—neutrons, protons, and electrons
center of an atom; contains neutrons and protons. In eukaryotic cells, the central membrane-bound organelle that manages cellular functions and contains DNA
positively charged particle in an atom's nucleus.
particle without a charge in an atom's nucleus
negatively charged particle that occupies space around an atom's nucleus.
pure substance composed of only one type of atom; cannot be broken down into another substance by physical or chemical means
two or more atoms of the same element having different numbers of neutrons.
pure substance with unique properties; formed when two or more different elements combine.
type of chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons.
compound whose atoms are held together by covalent bonds
atom that is negatively or positively charged because it have lost or gained one or more electrons.
electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms.
energy-requiring process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are changed into different substances
substance that exists before a chemical reaction starts; located on the left side of the arrow in a chemical reaction.
substance formed by a chemical reaction; located on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation.
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy.
protein that speeds up a biological reaction by lowering the activation energy needed to start the reaction
reactant to which an enzyme binds
specific place where a substrate binds on an enzyme.
molecule with oppositely charged regions
combination of two or more different substances in which each substance keeps its individual characteristics; can have a uniform composition (homogeneous) or have distinct areas of substances (heterogeneous).
homogeneous mixture formed when a substance (the solute) is dissolved in another substance (the solvent).
substance in which another substance is dissolved.
substance dissolved in a solvent.
substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water; an acidic solution has a pH less than 7.
substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water; a basic solution has a pH greater than 7.
measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution.
mixture that can react with an acid or a base to maintain the pH within a specific range.
large molecule formed by joining smaller organic molecules together
large molecule formed from smaller repeating units or identical, or nearly identical, compounds linked by covalent bonds.
organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of on oxygen and two hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom.
hydrophobic biological molecule composed mostly or carbon and hydrogen; fats, oils, and waxes are lipids
organic compound made of amino acids joined by peptide bonds; primary building block of organisms.
carbon compound joined by peptide bonds; building block of proteins.
complex macromolecule that stores and communicates genetic information.
a subunit of nucleic acid formed from a single sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.