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36 terms

Biology Ch 06 Biochemistry

Mrs. Sands Biology Ch 06 Biochemistry
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atom
building block of matter; contains subatomic particles—neutrons, protons, and electrons
nucleus
center of an atom; contains neutrons and protons. In eukaryotic cells, the central membrane-bound organelle that manages cellular functions and contains DNA
proton
positively charged particle in an atom's nucleus.
neutron
particle without a charge in an atom's nucleus
electron
negatively charged particle that occupies space around an atom's nucleus.
element
pure substance composed of only one type of atom; cannot be broken down into another substance by physical or chemical means
isotope
two or more atoms of the same element having different numbers of neutrons.
compound
pure substance with unique properties; formed when two or more different elements combine.
covalent bond
type of chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons.
molecule
compound whose atoms are held together by covalent bonds
ion
atom that is negatively or positively charged because it have lost or gained one or more electrons.
ionic bond
electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms.
chemical reaction
energy-requiring process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are changed into different substances
reactant
substance that exists before a chemical reaction starts; located on the left side of the arrow in a chemical reaction.
product
substance formed by a chemical reaction; located on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation.
catalyst
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy.
enzyme
protein that speeds up a biological reaction by lowering the activation energy needed to start the reaction
substrate
reactant to which an enzyme binds
active site
specific place where a substrate binds on an enzyme.
polar molecule
molecule with oppositely charged regions
mixture
combination of two or more different substances in which each substance keeps its individual characteristics; can have a uniform composition (homogeneous) or have distinct areas of substances (heterogeneous).
solution
homogeneous mixture formed when a substance (the solute) is dissolved in another substance (the solvent).
solvent
substance in which another substance is dissolved.
solute
substance dissolved in a solvent.
acid
substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water; an acidic solution has a pH less than 7.
base
substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water; a basic solution has a pH greater than 7.
pH
measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution.
buffer
mixture that can react with an acid or a base to maintain the pH within a specific range.
macromolecule
large molecule formed by joining smaller organic molecules together
polymer
large molecule formed from smaller repeating units or identical, or nearly identical, compounds linked by covalent bonds.
carbohydrate
organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of on oxygen and two hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom.
lipid
hydrophobic biological molecule composed mostly or carbon and hydrogen; fats, oils, and waxes are lipids
protein
organic compound made of amino acids joined by peptide bonds; primary building block of organisms.
amino acid
carbon compound joined by peptide bonds; building block of proteins.
nucleic acid
complex macromolecule that stores and communicates genetic information.
nucleotide
a subunit of nucleic acid formed from a single sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.