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Epidemiology,Taxonomy, Overview of Microbes Transmission and Development of Infectious Diseases ~VETT113 Small Animal Diseases and Medical Care San Juan College Veterinary Technicians


the study of the cause, incidence, source, method of transmission, and distribution of disease in a population (group of animals / humans)


study infectious diseases and non-infectious diseases such as chronic illnesses, accidents, environmental issues, behavioral problems.

Subclinical or Asymptomatic

the animal is infected but no clinical signs develop

Clinical Signs or Symptomatic

the animal is infected and shows a variety of clinical signs of the disease


An illness or abnormal condition / diseased / unhealthy


Death / death rate


This is a disease that is found at a fairly constant, low incident rate in a population
Example: Rabies in certain wildlife species in certain areas

Epidemic (Outbreaks)

Occurrence of more cases of disease than would normally be expected in a population: an increase in cases
This may also be called an Epizootic when animals are affected
examples: Spinal Meningitis in school age children or typical flu cases


Epidemics that spread to several countries / new continents (worldwide), which affect large number of animals/people
Examples: AIDS, Influenza, Plague


orderly classification of organisms into groups and this classification scheme allows every single organism to have a specific scientific name

host specific

some microbes that cause disease in some species of animals but not others.


species of microbes capable of causing disease in people and animals


~cells that do not have a "true" nucleus and are relatively simple cells. The genetic material is found loose in the cell.


~cells that have a defined / "true" nucleus surrounded by a membrane and are much more complex
~Fungi, Protozoa, Animal, and Plant cells

Normal Flora

Microbes that colonize the human body during birth or shortly thereafter, remaining throughout life
Ex; skin (especially the moist areas, such as the groin and between the toes), respiratory tract (particularly the nose), urinary tract, and the digestive tract (primarily the mouth and the colon)


require oxygen to grow


require NO oxygen be present


tiny organisms—too tiny to see without a microscope
~belonging to the bacteria group are made up of only one cell


cold-loving bacteria, can live in the subfreezing temperature of the Arctic.


heat-loving bacteria that can live in extreme heat,




groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds


occurs when cells or molecules in your body stop working properly, causing symptoms of illness. Many things can cause a disease, including altered genes, chemicals, aging, and infections


groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function
~Ex liver, respiratory system, or blood.


piece of a virus that comes in contact with a cell it likes


A Viruses that can "infect" bacteria


medicines for preventing and treating bacterial infections


a primitive plant found in in air, in soil, on plants, and in water

Fungal diseases

(Mycoses) disease that effect your skin, nails, body hair, internal organs such as your lungs, and body systems such as your nervous systemmycoses.


medicines that kill harmful bacteria in our bodies


group of microscopic one-celled animals.


any tiny (usually microscopic) entity capable of carrying on living processes; kinds of microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses; seen only by a microscope.


scientists who study microbes


a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease


An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide.


study of how microbes work and how to control them. It seeks ways to use that knowledge to prevent and treat the diseases microbes cause.


disease producing microorganisms

immune system

a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response


a substance that stimulates an immune response


the quality of being unaffected by something


substances produced by the body to prevent disease

immune responses

Classically conditioned immune system to suppress itself at a specific cue


a process of stimulates the body's immune system to defend against attack by particular contagious disease

Acute infections

infections that are usually severe and last a short tim

Chronic infections

usually develop from acute infections and can last for days to months to a lifetime. Sometimes people are unaware they are infected but still may be able to transmit the germ to others

Latent infections

infections that are "hidden" or "silent" and may or may not cause symptoms again after the first acute episode.


occurs when a microbe—such as a virus, bacterium, fungus, or parasite—enters your body and begins to reproduce


drugs used to treat parasite infections or infestations.


very tiny, simple organisms not able to metabolize, grow, or reproduce on its own, but must take over a host cell that provides these functions without the aid of a host cell, and is therefore not considered "living."

genetic material

blueprint for determining the structure and behavior of a cell


The coat serves to protect the nucleic acid and aid in its transmission between host cells.


many small protein particles that make up a capsid


a process when a virus finds a suitable host to reproduce and attaches to the surface of the cell or is ingested into the cell


substances that will destroy an invader and prevent the host from contracting the same disease again in the future


small proteins that are produced by a cell infected with a virus

binary fission

a type of asexual reproduction; divide in two, and each new bacterium is a clone of the original - they each contain a copy of the same DNA


long whip-like structures attached to bacteria used for movement.


a measure of the bacterium's ability to grow inside the host


measures the capacity of the bacterium to produce toxins (chemical substances that cause damage to the host)


large, plant-like organisms that lack chlorophyll therefore needing to absorb food from whatever they are growing on


nitrogenous substance found inthe cell wall of a fungis (not found in the cell walls of plants, but can be found in the outer shells of some crabs and mollusks)


network of branching tubes known


mass network of hyphae (branching tubes)


genetic material gathered together and enclosed by a membrane


mode of reproduction used fungi that form hyphae; hyphae break off and grow as new individuals.


tiny single cells that are produced by fungi that have hyphae


secrete digestive enzymes and absorb the resulting soluble nutrients from whatever they are growing on.


drugs that can only prevent further growth of a fungus rather than to kill it


positive host microbe relationship that both the host and the microbe benefit


positive host microbe relationship where one partner of the relationship benefits (usually the microbe) and the other partner (usually the host) is neither benefited nor harmed


negative host microbe relationship where the microbe benefits at the expense of the host and causes damage to the host


negative host microbe relationship where the microbe causes damage to the host

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