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Small Animal Diseases & Medical Care-Epidemiology Taxonomy Overview of Microbes

Epidemiology,Taxonomy, Overview of Microbes Transmission and Development of Infectious Diseases ~VETT113 Small Animal Diseases and Medical Care San Juan College Veterinary Technicians
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Epidemiology
the study of the cause, incidence, source, method of transmission, and distribution of disease in a population (group of animals / humans)
Epidemiologist
study infectious diseases and non-infectious diseases such as chronic illnesses, accidents, environmental issues, behavioral problems.
Subclinical or Asymptomatic
the animal is infected but no clinical signs develop
Clinical Signs or Symptomatic
the animal is infected and shows a variety of clinical signs of the disease
Morbidity
An illness or abnormal condition / diseased / unhealthy
Mortality
Death / death rate
Endemic
This is a disease that is found at a fairly constant, low incident rate in a population
Example: Rabies in certain wildlife species in certain areas
Epidemic (Outbreaks)
Occurrence of more cases of disease than would normally be expected in a population: an increase in cases
This may also be called an Epizootic when animals are affected
examples: Spinal Meningitis in school age children or typical flu cases
Pandemic
Epidemics that spread to several countries / new continents (worldwide), which affect large number of animals/people
Examples: AIDS, Influenza, Plague
Taxonomy
orderly classification of organisms into groups and this classification scheme allows every single organism to have a specific scientific name
host specific
some microbes that cause disease in some species of animals but not others.
pathogenic
species of microbes capable of causing disease in people and animals
Prokaryotes
~cells that do not have a "true" nucleus and are relatively simple cells. The genetic material is found loose in the cell.
Eukaryotes
~cells that have a defined / "true" nucleus surrounded by a membrane and are much more complex
~Fungi, Protozoa, Animal, and Plant cells
Normal Flora
Microbes that colonize the human body during birth or shortly thereafter, remaining throughout life
Ex; skin (especially the moist areas, such as the groin and between the toes), respiratory tract (particularly the nose), urinary tract, and the digestive tract (primarily the mouth and the colon)
Aerobes
require oxygen to grow
Anaerobes
require NO oxygen be present
Microbes
tiny organisms—too tiny to see without a microscope
~belonging to the bacteria group are made up of only one cell
Psychrophiles
cold-loving bacteria, can live in the subfreezing temperature of the Arctic.
Thermophiles
heat-loving bacteria that can live in extreme heat,
toxins
poisons
molecules
groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
disease
occurs when cells or molecules in your body stop working properly, causing symptoms of illness. Many things can cause a disease, including altered genes, chemicals, aging, and infections
tissues
groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function
~Ex liver, respiratory system, or blood.
virion,
piece of a virus that comes in contact with a cell it likes
bacteriophages
A Viruses that can "infect" bacteria
antibiotic
medicines for preventing and treating bacterial infections
fungus
a primitive plant found in in air, in soil, on plants, and in water
Fungal diseases
(Mycoses) disease that effect your skin, nails, body hair, internal organs such as your lungs, and body systems such as your nervous systemmycoses.
antibiotics
medicines that kill harmful bacteria in our bodies
Protozoa
group of microscopic one-celled animals.
microorganisms
any tiny (usually microscopic) entity capable of carrying on living processes; kinds of microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses; seen only by a microscope.
microbiologists
scientists who study microbes
epidemic
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
pandemics
An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide.
microbiology
study of how microbes work and how to control them. It seeks ways to use that knowledge to prevent and treat the diseases microbes cause.
pathogens
disease producing microorganisms
immune system
a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
antigen
a substance that stimulates an immune response
immunity
the quality of being unaffected by something
antibodies
substances produced by the body to prevent disease
immune responses
Classically conditioned immune system to suppress itself at a specific cue
Immunization
a process of stimulates the body's immune system to defend against attack by particular contagious disease
Acute infections
infections that are usually severe and last a short tim
Chronic infections
usually develop from acute infections and can last for days to months to a lifetime. Sometimes people are unaware they are infected but still may be able to transmit the germ to others
Latent infections
infections that are "hidden" or "silent" and may or may not cause symptoms again after the first acute episode.
infection
occurs when a microbe—such as a virus, bacterium, fungus, or parasite—enters your body and begins to reproduce
antiparasitic
drugs used to treat parasite infections or infestations.
virus
very tiny, simple organisms not able to metabolize, grow, or reproduce on its own, but must take over a host cell that provides these functions without the aid of a host cell, and is therefore not considered "living."
genetic material
blueprint for determining the structure and behavior of a cell
capsid
The coat serves to protect the nucleic acid and aid in its transmission between host cells.
capsomeres
many small protein particles that make up a capsid
phagocytosis
a process when a virus finds a suitable host to reproduce and attaches to the surface of the cell or is ingested into the cell
Antibodies
substances that will destroy an invader and prevent the host from contracting the same disease again in the future
interferons
small proteins that are produced by a cell infected with a virus
binary fission
a type of asexual reproduction; divide in two, and each new bacterium is a clone of the original - they each contain a copy of the same DNA
flagella
long whip-like structures attached to bacteria used for movement.
invasiveness
a measure of the bacterium's ability to grow inside the host
toxigenicity
measures the capacity of the bacterium to produce toxins (chemical substances that cause damage to the host)
Fungi
large, plant-like organisms that lack chlorophyll therefore needing to absorb food from whatever they are growing on
chitin
nitrogenous substance found inthe cell wall of a fungis (not found in the cell walls of plants, but can be found in the outer shells of some crabs and mollusks)
hyphae
network of branching tubes known
mycelium
mass network of hyphae (branching tubes)
nucleus
genetic material gathered together and enclosed by a membrane
Fragmentation
mode of reproduction used fungi that form hyphae; hyphae break off and grow as new individuals.
Spores
tiny single cells that are produced by fungi that have hyphae
heterotrophs
secrete digestive enzymes and absorb the resulting soluble nutrients from whatever they are growing on.
fungistatic
drugs that can only prevent further growth of a fungus rather than to kill it
mutualistic
positive host microbe relationship that both the host and the microbe benefit
commensalistic
positive host microbe relationship where one partner of the relationship benefits (usually the microbe) and the other partner (usually the host) is neither benefited nor harmed
parasitic
negative host microbe relationship where the microbe benefits at the expense of the host and causes damage to the host
pathogenic
negative host microbe relationship where the microbe causes damage to the host