a(n) _____ ______ is a group of organs working together for a coordinated function

organ system

good criteria for a good hypothesis

It is consistent with what is already known
It is testable and falsifiable

gross anatomy

study of bodily organs that can be seen without magnification

The process of carefully separating of tissue to reveal anatomical relationships


Levels of hierarchy of the body

organ system

Name the term for a generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave

the law of nature

Identify the benefits of a large sample size

1) It enables us to place greater confidence in the outcome
2) Controls for individual variation
3) It controls for chance events
Note: Can't eliminate random variation

Inductive method allows one to make conclusions based on ____


The hypothetico-deductive method allows one to make conclusions based on _____


Name the process of eliminating metabolic waste products from the body


Organisms respond to _____ or changes in their environment


Change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms over a period of time


The tendency of a living body organism to maintain relatively stable internal conditions in spite of greater changes in its external environments is known as


a(n) ______is a molecule, cell or organ that directly carries out a response to a stimulus


the____theory states that all living organisms are composed of cells.

Cell- Schleiden and Schwann are credited

Experimenter bias is

the conscious or subconscious influence an experimenter may have on their interpretation of their data

An aggregation of cells and extracellular material, which perform a discrete function is known as a

tissue- 4 primary classes are

Name the smallest unit of an organism that can carry out all functions of life

single cell

The _____method of study is the process of drawing conclusions and making predictions from repeated observation


Name the term for an explanatory statement, or set of statements, that concisely summarizes the state of knowledge on a phenomenon and provides a direction for further study



information that can be independently verified by any trained person in the field.

The _____is a process by which an educated guess is capable of being tested and may be proven false by experimentation

Scientific Method

A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population over a period of time is called ______

is the mechanism that produces adaptations in human form and function

Identify Forces that may serve as selective pressures


Name the evolutionary process that leads to the establishment of species characteristics that favor survival and reproduction


A single complete individual capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth, and development, and maintenence of homeostasis is termed a (n)______


Name the structure made by joining 2 or more different atoms

(same element for example H..but you can have 2 atoms of H=H2)

A(n) _____is any anatomical structure that is composed with at least two different tissue types, has recognizable structural boundaries, and has a discrete function different from the structure around it


The inductive method allows one to make conclusions based on


A(n) _____review is the method of evaluation of results by other experts in that field


Name the physicians to Roman gladiators who wrote on the anatomy of humans based on his dissections of pigs monkey's and other animals

Claudius Galen

Was one of the first Philosopher to write about anatomy and physiology and wrote a book "Of the parts of Animals"


Name the philosopher who believed that, not only could disease have supernatural causes, but natural causes as well, and argued that complex structures are built from a smaller variety of simple components


A self-amplifyng cycle in which a physiological change leads to an even greater change in the same direction is _______

positive feedback

True/False the study of ultra structure focuses on examining individual cells, but not their internal components

False the study of ultrastructure focuses on structures WITHIN cells. The study of cells is cytology

______surgery is the practice of diagnosing illness by opening the body


Who is the Greek physician who established a code of ethics and urged physicians to seek natural causes for disease


Blood pressure is controlled by ______feedback mechanism


A receptor that detects pressure change is called______


_____equilibrium occurs when there is a set average point and conditions fluctuate around that point


The name for a cell or organ that is specialized to detect a stimulus, such as a taste cell or a rod or cone of the eye, is a ____


In an experiment, the control group is unaltered, while the ______group contains the variable being tested

experimental, or treatment group

Identify a name of a substance with no significant effect on a subjects physiology but is given to a control group that thinks they are being given the treatment


Identify those tests below that are statical tests

Chi square analysis
T test

Litmus Test

is a test that uses a single answer to determine a decision

The science of ______medicine uses our evolutionary past to explain diseases


Identify the name for the forces promoting the reproductive success of some individuals over others

selection pressures

Natural Selection

is the process, by which evolution works, that states that some individuals have hereditary advantage over their competitors

Name the "Galen of Islam" who's influential textbook was the leading authority in European medical schools for 500 years


Ability to grasp an object by encircling them with the thumb and fingers is called


The _____center of a feedback mechanism processes information, relates it to other information, and makes a decision of action


____and ____were 19th century Germans whose microscopes included very good lenses and a condenser

Zeiss and Abe

A ______test provides a statement of probability that the experimental outcome was due to random variation


Name the term for any molecule of large size and high molecular weight, such as a protein, nucleic acid, polysaccharide, or triglyceride


placebos are given to avoid____effects, instances where physiology is affected by the state of mind


Describe how anatomical are frequently constructed . Consider the examples, "foramen magnum", and "stratum lucidum"

Noun before adjective

True/False Double blinded method is used to control the experiment bias where neither the subject nor the person giving the treatment and recording data know which subjects are receiving treatment and which are receiving placebo


The PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan is an example of Anatomical Terminology that is described as a(n)


____is the increase in the size of a cell or organism


the study of how different species have solved physiological problems of life is known as ______physiology


Englishman who invented the modern compound microscope in the 1600s and observed plant cells was

Robert Hooke

Who is credited with experimental physiology

william harvey

Name the Italian who taught Anatomy to medical students using cadavers in the 1500

Andreas Vesalius

In performing a physical examination, the act of listening to sounds made by the body is known as


Branch of medicine that utilized medical imaging technologies to explore the interior of the body


Terms that identify the discoverer of a structure are called


Give the name for the adaptation of primates that allows for depth perception

Stereoscopic vision

Descartes and ____revolutionized the philosophy of science arguing for a more systematic enterprise aimed at new discoveries.. used scientific method


Taking a pulse by feeling the radial artery is an example of


Tapping on a body surface then listening to the echo to diagnose health


Who was the first to observe and describe microorganisms using the microscope


Identify 2 people who suggested that all organims were composed of cells

Schleiden and Schwann

The act of looking at the body is


Name the subdiscipline of physiology that is concerned with the mechanisms of disease


Study of changes of normal mechanical, physical and biochemical, functions caused by a disease


Name the method of reasoning that begins with a hypothesis or question then arises to answer that question

Hypothetico-deductive method

the ability of nerves or muscle cells to produce changes in the membrane voltage is known as


The Number of animals or people used in an experimental study is called the

Sample Size

____is the process of transforming a cell with no specialized function into a cell with a specialized function


What term means on top


Name the ability to walk upright


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