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Biology 101 Exam #2
Terms in this set (74)
The offspring produced via sexual reproduction are genetically ___________ to the parents?
Upon fertilization, the egg and the sperm fuse to form a single cell called a(n).....
when one cell goes through cell division, it produces....
two identical cells
How much of your DNA is identical to that of another person of the same sex?
DNA plus it's associated proteins is called a ______
Gene are located on _____
Which type of cells do not undergo mitosis
A zygote (fertilized egg) undergoes development to grow. What mechanism is used to generate more cells?
Somatic cells are.....
If mitosis makes somatic cells,
what does meiosis make?
What produces genetically unique daughter cells?
What is the difference between two alleles of the same gene
The information they carry.
For example, one allele might carry the information for blue eye pigment, while the other carries the information for brown eye pigment.
When saying a flower is "purple"
What is being described?
Assuming complete dominance, what is the expected ratio of genotypes of the offspring following the cross of two heterozygotes?
Assuming complete dominance, what is the expected ratio of phenotypes of the offspring following the cross of two heterozygotes?
Define Mendel's law of independent assortment
The inheritance of one character has no effect on the inheritance of another character
The following F1 cross is made:
BBGg X Bbgg.
Which is not a possible outcome in the F2 generation.
BbGG is not possible
- can't have two GG when there is only one capital in the equation.
What is the monomer of the DNA molecule?
What is different from one DNA to the next?
According to the base pairing rules of DNA, if the sequence of bases on one strand was AGGCTTA, what would be the sequence of bases on the complementary strand?
If DNA directs the production of RNA, what does RNA make?
RNA makes proteins
Why does transcription occur in the nucleus and not the cytoplasm in eukaryotes?
DNA can't leave the nucleus
Which process results in the creation of mRNA?
What is a gene?
A section of DNA that is a discrete sequence of DNA nucleotides that code for one or more proteins and a portion
If the base sequence of template strand reads GCCATTAC, what is the base sequence of the anticodon?
What does "transfer RNA" actually transfer
If the codon is AAA, what is the complementary anticodon?
How many nucleotides are required to code for 10 amino acids
Do all cells of the body express the same genes?
No, since they don't all need to make the same proteins
Can one gene make different proteins?
Yes, by splicing the resulting mRNA differently
Cancer is _______
uncontrolled cell growth
Genetically modified organisms that acquire genes from a different species are called ________ organisms
Is most of our DNA made up of genes?
No, genes make up only 1.5% of our DNA
How does a scientist get the corrected version of a gene into the cells of a gene therapy patient?
It is delivered with a modified virus
Individuals with variations that make them best suited to their environment will, on average, be more likely to ______________ ?
Survive and reproduce
Natural selection acts on ______, and ________ evolve
Can you inherit physical traits that your parents acquired during their lifetime?
A weed that exhibits resistance to an herbicide __________
inherited the gene that made it resistant to the herbicide
Which of the following are considered to be fossils?
- footprints or other impressions preserved in stone
-Animals frozen in ice or preserved in amber
Comparing the body structures of organisms to find evidence of a shared evolutionary history is called _____?
Human embryos have developmental stage during which they have a tail and pharyngeal pouches (those pouches develop into gills in fish). How can we explain these characteristics of human embryos?
Human embryos share a common ancestor who had gills
What is the smallest unit that can evolve
which of the following mechanisms can drive evolution?
What is the original source of variation that natural selection can act upon?
Changes in genes within a population over time
What does "fitness" mean when speaking in terms of evolution
How many offspring an individual produces
What events can lead to offspring having a unique arrangement of their parents genes
Independent assortment & crossing over
Certain traits will have been lost from the gene pool forever. Some may be obvious, like people with red hair or double jointed thumbs. Others will be less obvious, like the ability to process cholesterol or being allergic to peanuts. This loss of diversity in a reduced population is called ________.
Chromosome state where cell contains a full set of chromosomes
(one set from mother, one from father)
Chromosome state where the cell contains only 1/2 of the full set of chromosomes
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes
paired chromosomes (attached) that are the product of DNA replication
Cells that are diploid, and occur in all parts of the body. The only cells that are NOT somatic are GAMETES - which are either egg or sperm cells
Haploid cells that are eggs or sperm
Which kind of cells are associated with MITOTIC reproduction
Which kind of cells are associated with MEIOTIC reproduction
How do mitotically and meiotically dividing cells differ?
MITOTIC cells undergo one replication event and one division event. The daughter cells contain the same genetic material as the parent.
MIEOTICally dividing cells undergo one replication event and two division events. The daughter cells contain only 1/2 of the chromosomes at the parent cell.
What is crossing over?
What kind of cells does it occur?
& what is the consequence of crossing over on genetic variation?
Crossing over is an event in MEIOSIS where some of the DNA from sister chromosomes is exchanged (shuffled).
The resulting chromosomes are unique - this increases genetic variation in the eggs/sperm
Process that produces mRNA from DNA code
Process that produces protein from mRNA code
Transcription involves nucleotides, DNA, pre-mRNA, mRNA, exons and introns..
What makes what?
DNA (specifically nucleotide sequences on a gene) are transcribed, producing a pre-mRNA molecule. The pre-mRNA is spliced, removing introns and retaining exons, The product is mRNA.
Where does transcription occur in human cells?
Transcription occurs in the nucleus.
DNA can't leave the nucleus ,b/c its too large, mRNA can.
Translation involves mRNA, tRNA, amino acids, ribosomes, anticodons and codons (and ATP).
What makes what?
mRNA travels into the cytoplasm where it finds ribosomes, which are the site of translation. Here the mRNA code serves as a guide for the assembly of a protein. Codons on the mRNA are briefly bound by complementary bases (anti-codon) on the tRNA molecule, Which brings to the ribosome specific amino acids. ATP is needed to complete this process.
How is gene expression regulated?
- DNA unpacking: which is based on the idea that DNA is bound and protected by proteins. Only when the DNA is unpacked (when the proteins are exposed to DNA) can transcription occur.
-Transcription factors: which are molecules that bind to the DNA and initiate transcription.
-RNA processing, pre-mRNA can be spliced in different ways to yield different mRNA molecules, getting different proteins
How is it possible for one gene to code for many different kinds of proteins?
Describe the relation between protein synthesis, environmental chemical (food), histones, transcription and DNA.
Environmental chemicals can bind to histones (the protein surrounding DNA) and affect how easily transcription factors can access the DNA. These chemicals can either increase or decrease transcription in a cell.
Cancer is not generally considered heritable but cancer does not nonetheless have a genetic basis. How can it be both?
-Cancer typically occur in somatic cells, and somatic cells are not pass onto offspring
-Cancer result from mutations of genes, which are involved in regulating cell growth/division.
- These genes are not cancerous until they mutate, so we usually don't think about it being inherited.
-Some people have genes that are more likely to mutate.
An explanation for an observation or series of observations that is substantiated by a considerable body of evidence.
Genetic change in population.
What are some of the key differences between MICRO and MACRO-evolution?
Micro- local and fast, within species genetic change, observable and demonstrated by experimentation
Macro- large scale and slow, creates new species, not observable (evidence inferential), controversial
(why do birds migrate)
(how do genes get inherited)
Name three mechanisms of evolution
Which mechanism leads to adaptation?
Which ones can't be adaptive?
Natural selection leads to adaptation, the other 3 can be non-adaptive
What are the three ways that genetic variability can be created
Mutation, Crossing over and sex itself.
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