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57 terms

Chapter 3

STUDY
PLAY
Sensation
The basic experience of stimulating the body's senses
sensation
Light energy stimulating neurons in the retina is an example of ___________.
the doctrine of specific nerve energies
The one-to-one relationship between the specific nerve stimulated and the resulting type of sensory experience
absolute threshold
The intensity at which the presence of a stimulus can be detected 50% of the time is called the__________.
20
According to McBurney and Collings, the average threshold for human hearing is the tick of a watch from ___ feet in very quiet conditions
500
According to McBurney and Collings, the average threshold for human taste is approximately 1 gram of table salt in ___ liters of water.
80
According to McBurney and Collings, the average threshold for human vision is a candle flame seen from __ miles on a dark, clear night
3
According to McBurney and Collings, the average threshold for human smell is one drop of perfume diffused through a _ bedroom apartment.
absolute
The point at which a person can detect a stimulus 50% of the time it is presented is called the _________ threshold.
difference
The smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time is called the ________ threshold.
50
The difference threshold is defined as the stimulus level at which a change in a sensory signal is detected ___ percent of the time.
difference
The term "just noticeable difference" is synonymous with the __________ threshold.
.3
The smallest amount of change in a sound we can detect is about __ %
20
The smallest amount of change in taste we can detect is about __%
2
The smallest amount of change in something's weight that we can detect is about _%
cornea
Light first enters the eye through this
cornea
The clear, transparent coating over the front part of the eye is the ______.
pupil
The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the _______.
pupil
The opening in the center of the iris
iris
The colored part of the eye that contains muscles to contract or expand the pupil
light
Moves through the eye from the cornea, to the pupil, to the lens, to the retina
lens
The transparent part of the eye inside the pupil that focuses light onto the retina
lens
Light is focused on the retina by the ____.
retina
The inner lining on the back of the eyeball containing receptor cells which are sensitive to light
fovea
The depressed spot in the retina which occupies the center of the visual field in which images are focused most sharply
retina
Contains the receptor cells responsible for vision
receptor cells
The rods and cones in the retina are ________ ________.
retina
Rods and cones are found in the ________.
rods
Which receptor cell does your eye contain the most of?
rods
Receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision and the perception of brightness
rods
What cells in the retina are primarily responsible for night vision as opposed to day vision?
cones
Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision
cones
Sharp vision in good illumination is primarily provided by which receptor cell?
rods
It is difficult to distinguish between colors at night we are seeing primarily with the _____.
rods
What structure in the retina is primarily responsible for night vision as opposed to day vision?
125
Each retina of the eye has about _____ million rods and cones.
wavelengths
The different energies represented in the electromagnetic spectrum are called ___________.
cones, rods
The fovea is made up of all _____ and no ______.
mostly in
Cones are found ________ __ the fovea.
exclusively outside
Rods are found _______________ ________ the fovea.
bipolar cells
Neurons in the eye that have only one axon and one dendrite and connect neurons from the retina to the ganglion cells are ______________ ______.
bipolar cells
Rods and cones are connected to ________ ____.
visual acuity
The ability of the eye to distinguish fine details is called ________ ______.
Rods
______ tend to pool their signals on their way to bipolar cells.
adaptation
The process in which receptor sensitivity changes as a result of continued exposure to a stimulus
30
Jaimie walks from a bright room into a dark room. It will take about __ minutes for her rods and cones to fully adjust to the dark.
dark
One of the major reasons for more traffic accidents at night is difficulties in ______ adaptation.
dark
The process by which rods and cones become more sensitive to light in response to lowered levels of illumination is called _______ adaptation.
rods
The fovea and blind spot are alike in that they both contain no ________.
light
The process by which rods and cones become less sensitive to light is called ________ adaptation.
1
Jaimie leaves a darkened movie theater and walks out into a bright light. Normally, it will take about ___ minute(s) for her rods and cones to adjust to the outside light.
afterimages
Caused by light and dark adaptation
ganglion
Neurons that connect bipolar cells in the eye to the brain are _________ cells.
optic nerve
Bundles of axons of ganglion cells make up the __________ __________.
interneurons
In the eye, sets of neurons called ______________ link receptor cells to one another and bipolar cells to one another.
blind spot
The place in the retina where the axons of all the ganglion cells come together to leave the eye is called the __________ ______.
optic chiasm
The place where the optic nerve fibers cross over on their way to the brain