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Study Objective 1: Brief Histroy, Ch. 2
Terms in this set (19)
What idea about the brain is credited to Hippocrates?
The recognition that the brain is the organ of intelligence
What invention by van Leeuwenhoek was critical for studying neuroanatomy?
Microscope (lenses of sufficient magnification to see neurons)
What is cortical localization of function?
That certain parts of brain controlled certain behaviors/ emotions
How did Broca's findings support the idea of localization of function?
Found that the frontal lobe was important for language
Then found the left cortical hemisphere is associated with production of speech
Describe what Hitzig and Fritsch found about electrical stimulation of the cortex in dogs.
When the electric currents stimulated a point on the cortical surface it showed a number of voluntary movements
What is the Bell-Magendie Law?
Afferent information from the senses to the brain is carried in the dorsal part of the spinal cord
Efferent information from the brain to the motor effectors is carried in the ventral part of the cord
information from the senses to the brain is carried in the dorsal part of the spinal cord
information from the brain to the motor effectors is carried in the ventral part of the cord
What is the law of specific nerve energies?
The belief that each sensory nerve carries only one kind of sensory information, regardless of how the nerve is stimulated
(Optic nerve would carry only visual info, auditory nerves only auditory info)
In what two ways were the phrenologists incorrect about localization of function?
1. They were wrong about which areas did what
2. They were wrong about the possibility of measuring brain growth from the surface of the skull
Describe how Helmholtz measured the speed of the neural impulse.
Worked with the severed leg of a frog, stimulating one end of the nerve and measuring the arrival of the impulse at the other end, as indicated by a twitch of the foot
It proposed three kinds of fibers in the retina that were differentially sensitive to red, green, and blue light and any spectral hue could be reproduced by some combination of those three colors
Proposes the existence of three color receptors: red-green perception, blue-yellow perception, and black-white perception
opponent process theory
What did research in the 1960's show about the trichromatic and opponent process theories?
Trichromatic theory: Explained color vision at the retinal level
Opponent process theory: Explained the way color information was processed in the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
The basilar membrane was composed of a series of transverse fibers, each of the fibers turned to a separate frequency
The firing of the impulses from the basilar membrane would match the frequency of the incoming sound
The point at which the subject can reliably discriminate between two stimuli
just noticeable differance
What does Weber's Law express?
The amount of change necessary for the subject to perceive a stimulus as different
Write out Fechner's Law (Weber-Fechner Law) and explain what each S, k, and R represent.
S= k log R
S=the perception for the stimulus, its perceived magnitude or intensity
R= the actual physical value of the stimulus
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