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1,905 terms

Digestive System

nutrients Your body needs __________ found in foods. energy Nutrients provide __________ and materials for cell development, growth, and repair. cell development Nutrients provide energy and materials for __________ __________, growth, and repair. growth Nutrients provide energy and materials for cell development, __________,and repair. repair Nutrients provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and __________. internal temperature You need energy for every activity and to mainta…
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nutrients
Your body needs __________ found in foods.
energy
Nutrients provide __________ and materials for cell development, growth, and repair.
cell development
Nutrients provide energy and materials for __________ __________, growth, and repair.
growth
Nutrients provide energy and materials for cell development, __________,and repair.
repair
Nutrients provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and __________.
internal temperature
You need energy for every activity and to maintain a steady __________ __________.
replacement
Proteins are used for __________ and repair of body cells and for growth.
repair
Proteins are used for replacement and __________ of body cells and for growth.
growth
Proteins are used for replacement and repair of body cells and for __________.
amino acids
Proteins are made of __________ __________.
eggs
Proteins are found in __________, milk, cheese, and meat.
milk
Proteins are found in eggs, __________, cheese, and meat.
cheese
Proteins are found in eggs, milk, __________, and meat.
meat
Proteins are found in eggs, milk, cheese, and __________.
Essential amino acids
__________ __________ __________ amino acids must be supplied by the foods you eat.
carbohydrates
The main source of energy for your body are __________.
carbon
Carbohydrates are made up of __________, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; energy holds these atoms together.
hydrogen
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, __________, and oxygen atoms; energy holds these atoms together.
oxygen
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and __________ atoms; energy holds these atoms together.
simple
Sugars are __________ carbohydrates.
complex
Starch and fiber are __________ carbohydrates.
Sugars
__________ are found in fruits, honey, and milk.
Starches
__________ are found in potatoes and pasts.
Fiber
__________ is found in whole-grain breads, beans, and peas.
lipids
Fats are also called __________.
energy
Fats provide __________ and help your body absorb vitamins.
vitamins
Fats provide energy and help your body absorb __________.
energy
Because fat is a good storage unit for __________, any excess energy is converted to fat.
fat
Because fat is a good storage unit for energy, any excess energy is converted to __________.
unsaturated
Fats are classified as __________ or saturated based on their chemical structure.
saturated
Fats are classified as unsaturated or __________ based on their chemical structure.
cholesterol
Saturated fats are associated with high __________.
growth
Vitamins are needed for __________, regulating body functions, and preventing disease.
regulating
Vitamins are needed for growth, __________ body functions, and preventing disease.
disease
Vitamins are needed for growth, regulating body functions, and preventing __________.
well balanced diet
A __________-__________ __________ usually gives your body all the vitamins it needs.
vitamins
A well-balanced diet usually gives your body all the __________ it needs.
water soluble
There are two groups of vitamins: __________-__________ vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins.
fat soluble
There are two groups of vitamins: water-soluble vitamins and __________-__________ vitamins.
inorganic
Minerals are __________ nutrients.
chemical reactions
Minerals regulate many __________ __________ in your body.
calcium
Of all the minerals used by your body it uses __________ and phosphorous the most.
phosphorous
Of all the minerals used by your body it uses calcium and __________ the most.
Water
__________ is required for survival.
Cells
__________ need water to carry out their work.
water
Cells need __________ to carry out their work.
nutrients
Most __________ your body needs must be dissolved in water.
water
Most nutrients your body needs must be dissolved in __________.
sixty
The human body is about __________ percent water.
perspire
You lose water each day when you __________, exhale, and get rid of wastes.
exhale
You lose water each day when you perspire, __________, and get rid of wastes.
wastes
You lose water each day when you perspire, exhale, and get rid of __________.
variety
Because no food has every nutrient, you should eat a __________ of foods.
nutrient
Because no food has every __________, you should eat a variety of foods.
food pyramid
The __________ __________ helps people select foods that supply all the nutrients they need.
food group
Foods that contain the same nutrients belong to a __________ __________.
bread, cereal
The five food groups include __________ and __________, vegetable, fruit, milk, and meat.
vegetable
The five food groups include bread and cereal, __________, fruit, milk, and meat.
fruit
The five food groups include bread and cereal, vegetable, __________, milk, and meat.
milk
The five food groups include bread and cereal, vegetable, fruit, __________, and meat.
meat
The five food groups include bread and cereal, vegetable, fruit, milk, and __________.
digestion
The process that breaks down food into small molecules that can be absorbed by blood is called __________.
small molecules
Digestion breaks food down into __________ __________ that can be absorbed by blood.
mechanical
When food is chewed, mixed, and churned __________ digestion is taking place.
chemical
When food is broken down by chemical reactions __________ digestion is taking place.
enzyme
An __________ is a type of protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction in your body.
enzymes
Many __________ are involved in the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
accessory
Food does not pass through the __________ organs which include the tongue, teeth, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
mouth
The __________ is where your tongue, teeth, and saliva change food into a soft mass called a bolus.
esophagus
The __________ is a muscular tube that moves food to the stomach using peristalsis, or waves of muscle contractions.
peristalsis
Food moves through your digestive system by waves of muscle contractions called __________.
stomach
In the __________ food is digested mechanically by peristalsis and chemically by digestive solutions with the help of enzymes.
mechanically
In the stomach food is digested __________ by peristalsis and chemically by digestive solutions with the help of enzymes.
chemically
In the stomach food is digested mechanically by peristalsis and __________ by digestive solutions with the help of enzygmes.
peristalsis
In the stomach food is digested mechanically by __________ and chemically by digestive solutions with the help of enzymes.
enzymes
In the stomach food is digested mechanically by peristalsis and chemically by digestive solutions with the help of __________.
small intestine
The __________ __________ contains villi which increase surface area to help with the absorption of nutrients.
villi
The small intestine contains __________ which increase surface area to help with the absorption of nutrients.
blood
Once nutrients are absorbed by the villi they are then transported to cells by __________.
surface area
The small intestine contains villi which increase __________ __________ to help with the absorption of nutrients.
large intestine
The __________ __________ absorbs water from undigested chyme.
chyme
The food liquid produced by the stomach is called __________.
water
The main function of the large intestine is to absorb excess __________.
three
When chyme enters the large intestine peristalsis slows down and can stay in the large intestine for __________ days.
rectum
The __________ and anus control the release of solid wastes from the body.
anus
The rectum and __________ control the release of solid wastes from the body.
Bacteria
__________ live in many of the organs of your digestive tract and make vitamins your body needs.
vitamins
Bacteria live in many of the organs of your digestive tract and make __________ your body needs.
esophagus
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/XeCo1K30uCdK_c9pNi_8Ug.jpg
stomach
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/tn9pEP43h7TEtjk2H18C_g.jpg
duodenum
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/5QJ4CZzm_KZLXUobPKbweQ.jpg
small intestine
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/g2gBdHhTv8xR686IwSK3vg.jpg
liver
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/1Jp6nAHen-smBNbS5PkQVA.jpg
gall bladder
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/qrkQE2ZzAeb-ZGMv7pi9rg.jpg
large intestine
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/SdzPYBFGRJur610h2YXD6g.jpg
rectum
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/fZihEjUu6c0wBw3zwIJgjQ.jpg
oral cavity
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "A" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
tongue
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "B" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
salivary glands
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "C" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
esophagus
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "D" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
liver
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "F" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
gall bladder
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "G" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
stomach
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "H" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
pancreas
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "I" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
duodenum
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "J" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
small intestine
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "M" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
large intestine
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "K" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
appendix
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "L" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
rectum
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "N" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
anal canal
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "O" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
anus
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "P" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
diaphragm
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "E" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
amino acids
Proteins are made of __________ __________.
carbohydrates
The main source of energy for your body are __________.
lipids
Fats are also called __________.
unsaturated
Fats are classified as __________ if they have any double bonds.
saturated
Fats are classified as __________ if they have no double bonds.
cholesterol
Saturated fats are associated with high __________.
digestion
The process that breaks down food into small molecules that can be absorbed by blood is called __________.
monomers
Digestion breaks macro molecules down into __________ that can be absorbed by blood.
mechanical
When food is chewed, mixed, and churned __________ digestion is taking place.
chemical
When food is broken down by enzymes or acid, __________ digestion is taking place.
enzyme
An __________ is a type of protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction in your body.
enzymes
Many __________ are involved in the chemical digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
accessory
Food does not pass through the __________ organs which include the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
mouth
The __________ is where digestion begins.
esophagus
The __________ is a muscular tube that moves food to the stomach using peristalsis, or waves of muscle contractions.
peristalsis
Food moves through your digestive system by waves of muscle contractions called __________.
stomach
In the __________, food is mechanically digested by peristalsis and chemically digested by enzymes and hydrochloric acid.
mechanically
In the stomach, food is __________ digested by peristalsis and chemically digested by enzymes and hydrochloric acid.
chemically
In the stomach, food is mechanically digested by peristalsis and __________ digested by enzymes and hydrochloric acid.
small intestine
The __________ __________ is lined with villi which increase surface area to help with the absorption of nutrients.
villi
The small intestine is lined with __________ which increase surface area to help with the absorption of nutrients.
blood
Once nutrients are absorbed by the villi they are then transported to all body cells by the __________.
surface area
The small intestine contains villi which increase __________ __________ to help with the absorption of nutrients.
large intestine
The main function of the __________ __________ is to re-absorb water before eliminating solid waste.
chyme
The liquid mixture of food, water, and digestive enzymes produced by the stomach is called __________.
water
The main function of the large intestine is to re-absorb __________ before eliminating solid waste.
rectum
The __________ and anus control the release of solid wastes from the body.
Bacteria
__________ live in your large intestine and make vitamins from undigested food.
vitamins
Bacteria live in your large intestine and make __________ from undigested food.
esophagus
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/XeCo1K30uCdK_c9pNi_8Ug.jpg
stomach
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/tn9pEP43h7TEtjk2H18C_g.jpg
small intestine
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/g2gBdHhTv8xR686IwSK3vg.jpg
liver
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/1Jp6nAHen-smBNbS5PkQVA.jpg
gall bladder
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/qrkQE2ZzAeb-ZGMv7pi9rg.jpg
large intestine
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/SdzPYBFGRJur610h2YXD6g.jpg
rectum
This picture shows which part of the digestive system? http://o.quizlet.com/i/fZihEjUu6c0wBw3zwIJgjQ.jpg
mouth
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "A" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
esophagus
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "D" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
liver
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "F" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
gall bladder
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "G" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
stomach
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "H" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
pancreas
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "I" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
small intestine
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "M" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
large intestine
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "K" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
appendix
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "L" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
rectum
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "N" pointing to? http://o.quizlet.com/i/o7EViFcUU0GpIfEe4dHSGA.jpg
small intestine
Where does most digestion take place?
An/o
Anus
Append/o
Appendix
Appendic/o
Appendix
Bar/o
Pressure, weight
Bucc/o
Cheek
Cec/o
Cecum
Chol/e
Bile, gall
Cholangi/o
Bile duct
Cholecyst/o
Gallbladder
Choledoch/o
Common bile duct
Col/o
Colon
Colon/o
Colon
Dent/o
Teeth
Duoden/o
Duodenum
Enter/o
Small intestine
Esophag/o
Esophagus
Gastr/o
Stomach
Gingiv/o
Gums
Gloss/o
Tongue
Hepat/o
Liver
iel/o
ileum
Jejun/o
Jejunum
Labi/o
Lips
Lapar/o
Abdomen, Abdominal Wall
Lingu/o
Tongue
Lith/o
Stone, Calculus
Odont/o
Teeth
Or/o
Mouth
Palat/o
Palate
Pancreat/o
Pancreas
Pharyng/o
Throat, pharynx
Proct/o
Rectum
Pylor/o
Pylorus, pyloric sphincter
Rect/o
Rectum
Sialaden/o
Salivary gland
Sigmoid/o
Sigmoid colon
-Emesis
Vomiting
-Lithiasis
Presence of stones
-Prandial
Meal
-Tripsy
Destroy, crush
-Orexia
Appetite
-Pepsia
Digest, digestion
-Phagia
Eat or swallow
Steat/o
Fat
Cheil/o
Lips
-Emet
Vomit
-Occult
Hidden
Metabol
Change
Ceil/o
Abdomen
-Ase
Enzyme
-Chezia
Defecation
-iasis
abnormal condition
Proctology
Study of rectum
Gastroesophageal
Pertaining to the stomach or esophagus
Carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the skin
Colitis
Inflammation of the colon
Cholecysitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder
Cholelithiasis
Presence of stones in gallbladder
Cholecystography
Visual exam of the gallbladder
Intravenous
IV~ the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein
Transhepatic
Pertaining to across the liver
Cholangiography
Exam of the gall vessels with the use of a contrast medium
Colonoscopy
Exam of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum
Cholangiopancreatography
Exam of the bile ducts and pancreas
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
Endoscopic procedure that allows a visual exam of the upper GI tract
Gastroscopy
Endoscope exam of the stomach
Laparoscopy
Visual exam of the abdomen and pelvis
Sigmoidoscopy
Endoscopic exam of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and the descending colon
Choledocholithotripsy
the crushing of the stones in the common bile duct
Colostomy
artificial opening from the colon
Borborygmus
normal intestine sounds
Jaundice
yellowish skin color
Icterus
yellowish skin color
Proteins
Amino Acids
Sugars
Glucose
Fats
Fatty Acids
Tongue
works in conjuction with the buccinator and keeps food on the grinding surface
Liver
produces bile, maintains glucose levels in bloodstream, makes blood proteins to help blood clotting, and removes toxins and poisons from the bloodstream
Pancreas
produces insulin and enzymes
Anorexia
lack of appetite
Cachexia
general weight loss due to disease or emotion
Bulimia
act of bingeing and purging
Ascites
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
Eructation
gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
Steatorrhea
fat in the feces; frouthy, foul-smelling fecal matter
Aphthous Stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth with small painful ulcers
Dental Caries
tooth decay
Herpetic Stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth by infection with the herpesvirus
Oral Leukoplakia
white plaques or patches
Periodontal Disease
inflammation and degeneration of the gums, teeth, and surrounding bone
Feces
stool, waste product
Melena
black tarry stool, bleeding in the upper digestive tract
Hematochezia
bright red blood in stool
Hematemesis
vomiting of blood
Flatus
gas expelled through rectum
Flatulence
gas expelled through rectum
Achalasia
failure of the lower esophagus sphincter muscle to relax
LES
lower esophagus sphincter
Esophageal Varices
swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus
GERD
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease~ solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
Peptic Ulcer
Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum
Gastric Carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the stomach
Hernia
protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it
Anal Fistula
abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
Colonic Polyposis
Polyps protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon
Colorectal Cancer
Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum or both
Crohn Disease
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract
Diverticulosis
abnormal side pockets (outpouchings) in the intestinal wall
Dysentery
painful, inflamed intestines
Hemorrhoids
swollen, twisted, vericose veins in the rectal region
ileus
failure of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines
intussusception
telescoping of the intestines
volvulus
twisting of the intestines on itself
IBS
Irritable Bowl Syndrome~ group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension
Ulcerative Colitis
chronic inflammation of the colon with the presence of ulcers
Cirrhosis
chronic degenerative disease of the liver
Pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
Viral Hepatitis
inflammation of the liver caused by a virus
Cholecystectomy
removal of the gallbladder
Choledocolithiasis
stones in common bile duct
choledocolithotomy
incision into common bile duct to remove stones
choledochotomy
incision into common bile duct
ESWL
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
Emetic
induces vomitting
Antiemetic
stops vomitting
Lavage
to wash
Gavage
force feeding through a stomach tube
pyrosis
heartburn
dyspepsia
difficult digestion
duodenum
first part of the digestive system
PEG
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy~ feeding tube
NV&D
Nausea, Vomiting, & Diarrhea
Hepatitis A
infectious (fecal to oral)
Hepatitis B
serum (contaminated syringes)
Hepatitis C
chronic (comes from transfusions)
Hepatitis D
can include blood to blood contact
Hepatitis E
acute hepatitis (traveler's hepatitis)
Jejunum
2nd part of the digestive system
ileum
3rd part of the digestive system
Mastication
chewing
bolus
soft mass of chewed food
deglutition
swallowing food
amylases
class of enzymes that breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars; two types are salivary and pancreatic
esophagus
a muscular tube that moves food from the mouth to the stomach.
chyme
the semifluid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
small intestine
consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum. This is where the majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients take place.
large intestine
absorbs remaining water and nutrients to form solid wastes
saliva
a solution that is made up of amylase anti-bacterial agents, mucin and buffers
pharynx
Short, muscular tube extending from the mouth and nasal cavities to the trachea and esophagus.
stomach
organ that produces HCl and pepsin to break food down into chyme; pH of 1-2
pepsin
In the stomach, this enzyme breaks down proteins into smaller molecules known as polypeptides.
epithelium
Layer of cells lining the lumen of the digestive tract (alimentary canal).
salivary glands
glands that produces amylase in solution in the mouth.
lipases
class of enzymes that breaks down fats (lipids) into fatty acids and glycerol.
absorption
This process that moved nutrients via cellular transport from the lumen of the small intestine through the villi into the bloodstream and lymphatic system
bolus
a mass of food that has been chewed at the point of swallowing; travels to the stomach for digestion
proteases
Class of enzymes that break down proteins into amino acid; pepsin and trypsin
pyloric sphincter
the muscular valve that regulates the flow of material from the stomach into the small intestine.
epiglottis
muscular flap that covers the trachea when swallowing to prevent food particles from entering the respiratory tract.
bile
Greenish yellow liquid produced by the liver that neutralizes acids and emulsifies fats in the duodenum.
peristalsis
Series of wavelike muscular contractions that move material in one direction through a hollow organ.
HCl
a substance secreted in the stomach that kills microorganisms and breaks down cell walls and connective tissue in food.
pH
a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution
gall bladder
organ that stores bile that is produced in the liver
enzyme
proteins that speed up biological reactions without being changed by the reaction
substrate
the molecules upon which an enzyme acts
active site
the position on the enzyme that attaches to the substrate
denature
a structural change in macromolecules including enzymes caused by extreme conditions such as pH or temperature.
substrate concentration
the rate of reaction of enzymes for this independent variable rises steadily and then slows down and levels off as the variable continues to increase.
pH
the rate of reaction curve for this independent variable resembles a bell curve decreasing on either side of the optimum; denaturing at both extremes.
temperature
the rate of reaction of enzymes for this independent variable increases to the optimum and then denatures quickly at one extreme.
Pancreas
Pancreatic Amylase (polysaccharides --> disaccharides), Lipase (lipids --> fatty acids and glycerol) and Trypsin (polypeptides --> amino acids)
Assimilation
Glucose --> broken down in cells for energy
Amino Acids --> used to protein synthesis to make enzymes
...
Where cells are taking in the nutrients and doing something with nutrients.
...
Function of Bile
1. Secrete bile salts to emulsify fats (lipids)
2. Neutralizes chyme through the alkaline secretions
...
3. Bring fat globules to water and make them soluble for other enzymes (lipase) to act on them
...
abdominal computed tomography (CT)
a radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structure within the abdomen
abdominal ultrasound
a noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves
absorption
the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body
acid reducers
decrease the amount of acid produced by the stomach
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)
caused by the abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth
aerophagia
the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach
amebic dysentery
an intestinal disorder caused by a parasite
anabolism
the building up of body cells and substances from nutrients
anal fissure
a small crack-like sore in the skin of the anus that cau cause severe pain during a bowel movement
anastomosis
a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures
anorexia
the loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance
anoscoopy
the visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum
antacids
neutralize the acids in the stomach
antiemetic
a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting
anus
the lower opening of the digestive tract
aphthous ulcers
grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers
ascending colon
travels upward from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver
ascites
an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
bariatric surgery
performed to treat morbid obesity to restricting the amount of food that can enter the stomach and be digested
bariatrics
the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases
bile
a digestive juice secreted by the liver
biliary tree
provides the channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine
bilirubin
the pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin
body mass index (BMI)
a number that shows body weight adjusted for height
bolus
a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed
borborygmus
the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
botulism
food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum
bowel incontinence
the inability to control the excretion of feces
bruxism
the involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting
cachexia
a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS
capsule endoscopy
a tiny video camera in a capsule that the patient swallows
catabolism
the breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide
cecum
a pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen
cheilosis
a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth
cholangiography
a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium
cholangitis
an acute infection of the bile duct
cholecystalgia
pain in the gallbladder
cholecystectomy
the surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecystic
pertaining to the gallbladder
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones
choledocholithotomy
an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones
cholelithiasis
the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
cholera
severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera
chyme
the semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter, and into the small intestine
cirrhosis
a progressive degenerative disease of the liver
cleft lip
a birth defect in which there is a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose as a result of the failure of this portion of the lip to close during prenatal development
cleft palate
the failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus
colectomy
the surgical removal of all, or part of, the colon
colon
the longest portion of the large intestine
colonoscopy
the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum
colorectal carcinoma
colon cancer
colostomy
the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface
constipation
having a bowel movement fewer than three times per week
Crohn's disease
a chronic autoimmune disorder that is most often found in the ileum and in the colon
defecation
the evacuation or emptying of the large intestine
dehydration
a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance
dental calculus
dental plaque that has calcified (hardened) on the teeth
dental caries
an infectious disease caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin of the tooth; also known as tooth decay or a cavity
dental plaque
forms as soft deposits in sheltered areas near the gums and between the teeth
dental prophylaxis
the professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus
dentist
specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of teeth and tissues of the oral cavity
dentition
refers to the natural teeth arranged in the upper and lower jaws
descending colon
travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon
diarrhea
an abnormal frequent flow of loose or watery stools that can lead to dehydration
digestion
the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use
diverticulectomy
the surgical removal of a diverticulum
diverticulitis
the inflammation of one or more diverticula in the colon
diverticulosis
the presence of a number of diverticula in the colon
duodenum
the first portion of the small intestine; extends from the pylorus to the jejunum
dyspepsia
pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
edentulous
without teeth
emesis
the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth; also known as vomiting
endoscope
an instrument used for visual examination of internal structures
enema
the placement of a solution into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity
enteritis
an inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens
epiglottis
a lid-like structure that closes off the entrance to the trachea (windpipe) to prevent food and liquids from moving from the pharynx during swallowing
eructation
the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach
esophageal varices
enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
an endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum
esophagus
the muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the pharynx to the stomach
feces
solid body wastes expelled through the rectum and anus
flatulence
the passage of gas out of the body through the rectum
gallbladder
a pear-shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver
gallstone
a hard deposit formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concretion of bile components
gastrectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
gastritis
a common inflammation of the stomach lining
gastroduodenostomy
the removal of the pylorus of the stomach and the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum
gastroenteritis
an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach and intestines
gastroenterologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines
gastroesophageal reflux disease
the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus
gastrointestinal tract
the structures of the digestive system
gastrorrhea
the excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucous in the stomach
gastrostomy tube
a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach
gingiva
the specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches, and lines the cheeks; also known as the gums
gingivectomy
the surgical removal or diseased gingival tissue
gingivitis
the earliest stage of periodontal disease, and the inflammation affects only the gums
halitosis
an unpleasant odor coming from the mouth that can be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders; also known as bad breath
hard palate
the bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane
hematemesis
vomiting blood
hemoccult test
a lab test for hidden blood in the stools
hemorrhoidectomy
the surgical removal of hemorrhoids
hemorrhoids
occur when a cluster of veins, muscles, and tissues slip near or through the anal opening
hepatectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the liver
hepatitis
an inflammation of the liver
hepatomegaly
the abnormal enlargement of the liver
hepatorrhaphy
surgical suturing of the liver
herpes labialis
blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters
hiatal hernia
a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm
hyperemesis
extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration
ileectomy
the surgical removal of the ileum
ileocecal sphincter
the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum of the large intestine
ileostomy
the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the outside of the abdominal wall
ileum
the last and longest portion of the small intestine; extends from the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine
ileus
the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine
inflammatory bowel disease
the general name for diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines
inguinal hernia
the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin
internist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the internal organs and related body systems
intestinal obstruction
the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intesting caused by a physical obstruction
intussusceptions
the telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part
irritable bowel syndrome
a common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea
jaundice
a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the eyes
jejunum
the middle portion of the small intestine; extends from the duodenum to the ileum
large intestine
extends from the small end of the small intestine to the anus
laxatives
medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements
lips
form the opening to the oral cavity
liver
a large organ located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen
liver transplant
an option for a patient whose liver has failed for a reason other than liver cancer
lower esophageal sphincter
a muscular ring that controls the flow between the esophagus and stomach
malabsorption
a condition in which the small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food that passes through it
malnutrition
a lack of proper food or nutrients in the body due to a shortage of food, poor eating habits, or the inability of the body to digest, absorb, and distribute these nutrients
malocclusion
any deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth
mastication
chewing; breaks food down into smaller pieces, mixes it with saliva, and prepares it to be swallowed
maxillofacial surgery
specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries
melena
the passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools
metabolism
includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients
morbid obesity
the condition of weighing two to three times, or more, than the ideal weight; also known as clinically severe obesity
nasogastric intubation
the placementof a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach
nausea
the urge to vomit
nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
describes a range of conditions characterized by an accumulation of fat within the liver that affect people who drink little or no alcohol
nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
consists of fatty accumulations plus liver-damaging inflammation
obesity
an excessive accumulation of fat in the body
occlusion
describes any contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth
oral cavity
contains the lips, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and the periodontium
oral rehydration therapy (ORT)
a treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract the dehydration that can accompany severe diarrhea
oral thrush
develops when the fungus Candida albicans grows out of control
orthodontist
a dental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusion of the teeth and related facial structures
ostomy
a surgical procedure to create an articial opening between an organ and the body surface
palate
forms the roof of the mouth
palatoplasty
surgical repair of a cleft lip and/or palate
pancreas
a soft, 6 inch long oblong gland that is located behind the stomach
papillae
small bumps found on the upper surface of the tongue
peptic ulcers
sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system
periodontal disease
an inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth
periodontist
a dental specialist who prevents or treats disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth
periodontium
consists of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth
peristalsis
a series of wave-like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction
permanent dentition
consists of 32 teeth that are designed to last a lifetime
pharynx
the common passageway for both respiration and digestion
pica
an abnormal craving or appetite for nonfood substances, such as dirt, paint, or clay that lasts for at least 1 month
primary dentition
consists of 20 teeth that are normally lost during childhood and are replaced by the permanent teeth
proctectomy
the surgical removal of the rectum
proctologist
a physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus
proctopexy
the surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ
proctoplasty
the surgical repair of the rectum
pyloric sphincter
the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine
pylorus
the narrow passage that connects the stomach with the small intestine
pyrosis
the burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus; also known as heartburn
rectum
the widest division of the large intestine
regurgitation
the return of swallowed food into the mouth
rugae
the folds in the mucosa lining the stomach
saliva
a colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process, and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing
salivary glands
secrete saliva that is carried by ducts into the mouth
salmonellosis
an infectious disease of the intestines that is transmitted by food contaminated with feces
sigmoid colon
an S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above and joins with the rectum below
sigmoidoscopy
the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon
small intestine
a coiled organ up to 20 feet in length that extends from the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine
soft palate
the flexible posterior portion of the palate
steatosis
characterized by accumulations of fat within the liver that usually does not cause liver damage
stomach
a sac-like organ composed of the fundus, body, and antrum
stomatomycosis
any disease of the mouth due to a fungus
stomatoplasty
the surgical repair of the mouth
stomatorrhagia
bleeding from any part of the mouth
stool samples
specimens of feces that are examined for content and characteristics
strangulated hernia
occurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off
temporomandibular disorder
part of the group of complex symptoms that include pain, headache, or difficulty in chewing athat are related to the functioning of the temporomandibular joint
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
formed at the back of the mouth where the maxillary and mandibular arches come together
total parenteral nutrition
administered to patients who cannot, or should not, get their nutrition through eating
transverse colon
passes horizontally from right to left toward the spleen
trismus
any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer
ulcerative colitis
a chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation
upper and lower GI series
radiographic studies to examine the digestive system
uvula
hangs from the free edge of the soft palate
vermiform appendix
hangs from the lower portion of the cecum
villi
finger-like projections that cover the mucosa that lines the small intestine
volvulus
the twisting of the intestine on itself that causes an obstruction
xerostomia
the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands; also known as dry mouth
an/o
anus
cec/o
cecum
chol/e
gall or bile
col/o
colon
enter/o
small intestine
esophag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
hepat/o
liver
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
-lithiasis
the formation of stones in an internal organ
pancreat/o
pancreas
-pepsia
digestion
proct/o
rectum, anus
rect/o
rectum
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
achlorhydria
A condition in which hydrochloric acid is absent in the stomach.
aerophagia
the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach
amebic dysentery
frequent, watery stools often with blood and mucus accompanied by pain, fever, and dehydration
anastomosis
Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
anoplasty
surgical repair of the anus
anorexia
eating disorder brought about by an extreme pursuit of thinness characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight loss
anoscopy
visual examination of the anus
aphthous ulcers
grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers
bilirubin
an orange-yellow pigment in the bile that forms as a product of hemoglobin
borborygmus
the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine.
botulism
food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum
bruxism
grinding of the teeth
bulimia
repeated binge eating, usually followed by vomiting
cholecystalgia
pain in the gall bladder
cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gall bladder
choledocholithotomy
incision into the common bile duct to remove a stone
cholelithiasis
the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
cholera
an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
cirrhosis
chronic degenerative disease of the liver
colitis
inflammation of the colon
colonoscopy
visual examination of the colon
colostomy
a surgical operation that creates an opening from the colon to the surface of the body to function as an anus
diverticulectomy
the surgical removal of a diverticulum
diverticulitis
inflammation of a diverticulum in the digestive tract (especially the colon)
duodenal ulcers
Ulcers of the small intestine caused by an excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid and Helicobacter pylori infection.
dyspepsia
a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
emesis
vomiting
emetic
a medicine that induces nausea and vomiting
enteritis
inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine)
eructation
gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
esophageal reflux
A condition in which stomach contents move backward into the esophagus, i.e., heartburn.
esophagoplasty
surgical repair of the esophagus
gastroduodenostomy
removal of part of the stomach and creation of a new opening between the stomach and the duodenum
gastroenteritis
inflammation of stomach and small intestine
gastrorrhagia
bleeding from the stomach
gastrorrhea
excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucus in the stomach
gastrorrhexis
A tear or bursting of the stomach.
gastrostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the stomach
gingivectomy
surgical removal of gum tissue
hematemesis
vomiting blood
hemoccult
test to detect blood in feces
hemorrhoidectomy
surgical procedure for tying hemorrhoids and excising them
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
hepatomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the liver
hepatorrhapy
suturing of liver
hepatorrhexis
rupture of the liver
hepatotomy
surgical incision into the liver
herpes labialis
blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue; also known as cold sores or fever blisters
hiatal hernia
hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
hyperemesis
severe and excessive vomiting
ileectomy
the surgical removal of the ileum
ileitis
inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine
ileocecal
valve between the small intestine and large intestine
ileostomy
creation of a new opening through the abdominal wall into the ileum
ileus
obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis
inguinal hernia
protrusion of a loop of the intestine through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region
intussusception
telescoping of a segment of the intestine
jaundice
yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood
maxillofacial
pertaining to the maxilla and the face
melena
abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)
nasogastric intubation
insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach
orthodontist
a dentist specializing in the prevention or correction of irregularities of the teeth
periodontitis
a disease that attacks the gum and bone and around the teeth
peristalsis
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
pica
compulsive eating of nonnutritive substances such as clay or ice
proctoplasty
surgical repair of the rectum
pyrosis
heartburn
regurgitation
the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
salmonella
enteric bacteria, causes typhoid fever and gastroenteritis, most common food born illness
sigmoidoscopy
visual examination of the lower third of the colon in a search for polyps
volvulus
twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction
alimentary
pertaining to the digestive tract
anus
terminal opening of the digestive tract through which feces are discharged.
digestion
breakdown of food into elements suitable for cell metabolism
gastroenterology
medical specialty of the stomach and intestines
gastroenterologist
medical specialist in gastroeneterology
laparoscopy
examination of contents of abdomen using an endoscope
bolus
a single mass of a substance
deglutition
act of swallowing
masticate
to chew
peristalis
waves of alternate contraction and relaxation of the intestinal wall to move food along the digestive tract
dentine
dense, ivory-like substance located under the enamel of a tooth
enamel
hard substance covering a tooth
mouth
external opening of a cavity or canal
nasopharnyx
region of the pharnyx at the back of the nose and above the soft palate
saliva
secretion in mouth from salivary glands
sublingual
underneath the tongue
submandibular
underneath the mandible
tongue
mobile muscle mass in the mouth; bears the taste buds
aphthous
painful small oral ulcers (canker sores)
gingivitus
inflammation of the gums
gingivectomy
surgical removal of diseased gum tissue
haltosis
bad breath odor
periodontal
around a tooth
pyorrhea
purulent discharge
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
emesis
vomit
hematemesis
vomitting of red blood
hernia
protrusion of a structure through the tissue that normally contains it
herniorrhaphy
repair or hernia
postprandinal
following a meal
reflux
backward flow
varices
dialated, torturous vein
duodenum
1st part of small intestine; approx. 12 finger-breadths in length
pylorus
exit area of the stomach
anorexia
w/o an appetite; or an aversion of food
dyspepsia
"upset stomach," epigastric pain, nausea, and gas
gastritis
inflammation of the lining of the stomach
gastroscope
endoscope for examinging the inside of the stomach
gastroscopy
endoscopic emam of the stomach
peptic
relating to the stomach and duodenum
absorption
uptake of nutrients and water by cells in the GI tract
cecum
blind pouch that is the first part of the large intestine
ileocecal
pertaining to the junction of the ileum and cecum
jejunum
segment of small intestine b/w the duodenum and the ileum
villi
thin,hair-like projection, particularly of a mucous membrane lining a cavity
bile
fluid secreted by the liver into the duodenum
cirrhosis
extensive fibrotic liver disease
hepatitus
inflammation of the liver
jaundice
yelllow staining of tissues with bile pigments, including bilirubin
cholecystitis
inflamation of the gallbladder
cholencystectomy
surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholendocholithiasis
presence of a gallstone in the common bile duct
cholelithiasis
condition of having bile stones (gallstones)
insulin
pancreatic hormone the supresses blood glucose levels and transports glucose into cells
pancreas
lobulated gland, the head of which is tucked into the curve of the duodenum
diarrhea
frequent loose or liquid stools
endoscopy
the use of an endoscope
endoscope
instrument used for visual examination within a tubular or hollow organ
flatulence
excessive gas in the stomach or intestines
flatus
gas or air expelled through anus
constipation
hard, infrequent bowel movements
dehydration
process of losing body water
dysentery
disease w/ diarrhea, bowel spasms, fever, and dehydration
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach and intestines
malnutrition
inadequate nutrition from poor diet or inadequate absorption of nutrients
anus
opening through which wastes leave the digestive tract
anorectal junction
junction b/w anus & rectum
appendix
small blind projection from the pouch of the cecum
appendicitus
inflammation of appendix
appendectomy
surgical removal of the appendix
colon
the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum
colic
spasmodic,crampy pains in the abdomen
colitis
inflammation of colon
feces
undigested waste material discharged from the bowel
fecal
pertaining to feces
rectum
terminal part of colon from the sigmoid to the anal canal
rectal
pertaining to rectum
sigmoid
sigmoid colon is shaped like an "S"; relating to the sigmoid flexure in the large intestine
bowel
another name for intestine
diverticulum
pouch-like opening or sac from a tubular structure (e.g. intestine)
diverticula/diverticulosis
presence of a number of small pouches in the wall of the large intestine
diverticulitis
inflammation of diverticula
fissure
deep furrow or cleft
hemorrhoid
dilated rectal vein producing painful anal swelling
intussuspection
the slipping of one part of the bowel inside another to cause obstruction
melena
passage of black & tarry stools
occult blood
Blood detected in stool by means of a chemical test but not apparent to the naked eye.
peritoneum
The membrane that lines, protects, and supports the abdominal organs.
polyp
mass of tissue that projects into the lumen of bowel
proctitis
inflammation of lining of rectum
anastomosis
surgically made union b/w tubular structures
endoscopy
use of endoscope
colonoscopy
visual examination of the colon from the cecum to the rectum, using endoscopy
protoscopy
exam of anus by endoscopy
sigmoidoscopy
exam of sigmoid colon by endoscopy
gastroscopy
exam of inside stomach by endoscopy
enema
injection of fluid into rectum
colostomy
artificial opening from the colon to the outside of the body
ileostomy
artificial opening from the ileum to the outside of the body
Appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix
Ascites
abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
Borborygmus
gurgling or rumbling sound heard over the large intestine that is caused by gas moving through the intestines
Cirrhosis
chronic liver disease characterized by destruction of liver cells that eventually leads to ineffective liver function and jaundice
Diverticular disease
condition where diverticula in the GI tract push the mucosal lining through the surrounding muscle
Dysentery
inflammation of the intestine caused by chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites
Fistula
abnormal passage from one organ to another
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
backflow of gastric contents into the esphogus due to malfunctioning lower esophageal sphincter
Hematochezia
bright red bloody stools
Hemorrhoid
enlarged, twisted varicose veins in the mucous membrane inside or just outside the rectum; also known as piles
Hernia
protusion or projection of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
ulceration of the colon mucosa
Crohn Disease
IBD that usually affects the ileum, may also be called regional colitis
Ulcerative colitis
IBD of the colon characterized by episodes of diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and pain
Irritiable bowel syndrome (IBS)
condition characterized by gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, also called spastic colon
Jaundice
yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of eyes caused by excessive levels of bilirubin in the blood
Obesity
condition in which a person accumulates an amount of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards
Morbid obesity
severe obesity in which a person has a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater
Polyp
small, tumorlike, benign growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface
Colonic polyposis
condition in which polyps project from the mucous membrane of the colon
Polyposis
condition in which polyps develop in the intestinal tract
Ulcer
open sore or lesion of the skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue
Volvulus
twisting of the bowel itself, causing obstruction
Barium enema
radiographic examination of the rectum and colon after administration of barium sulfate into the rectum
Barium swallow
Radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate
Computed Tomography (CT)
radiographic analysis using a narrow beam of x-rays that rotates in a full arc to produce cross-sectional images
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
radiographic technique using electromagnetic energy to produce cross-sectional images
Ultrasonography
imaging technique using high-frequency sound waves that bounce off body tissues and are recorded to produce an image
Endoscopy
visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope
Upper GI endoscopy
endoscopy of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
Lower GI endoscopy
endoscopy of th colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum and anal canal
Stool Guaiac
Test performed on feces using the reagent gum guaiac to detect presence of blood in feces that is not apparent on visual inspection; also called hemoccult test
Bariatric Surgery
group of procedures that treat morbid obesity
Vertical banded gastroplasty
upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to reduce it to a small pouch. a band is then inserted that restricts food consumption and delays its passage from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB)
Stomach is first stapled to descrease it to a small pouch. Next, the jejunum is shortened and connected to the small stomach pouch, causing the base of the duodenum leading from the nonfunctioning portion of the stomach to form a Y configuration. This configuration decreases the pathway of food through the intestine, thus reducing absorption of calories and fats
Lithotripsy
surgical crushing of a stone
Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
Use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to destroy stones in the gallbladder and biliary ducts
Nasogastric intubation
Insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach
Dent/o
teeth
odont/o
teeth
Gingiv/o
gums
Gloss/o
tongue
Lingu/o
tongue
or/o
mouth
stomat/o
mouth
ptyal/o
saliva
sial/o
saliva, salivary gland
esophag/o
esophagus
pharyng/o
pharynx
gastr/o
stomach
pylor/o
pylorus
mandibul/o
lower jaw
maxill/o
upper jaw
myc/o
fungus
enter/o
intestine (usually small intestine)
Intestin/o
intestines
orth/o
straight
muc/o
mucus
necr/o
death
aer/o
air
hemat/o
blood
carcin/o
cancer
megal/o
enlarged
nas/o
nose
son/o
sound
tom/o
to cut
choledoch/o
bile duct
hepat/o
liver
pancreat/o
pancreas
lith/o
stone, calculus
jaund/o
yellow
bil/i
bile, gall
lapar/o
abdomen
therm/o
heat, temperature
tox/o
poison
toxic/o
poison
cirrh/o
yellow
corpor/o
body
polyp/o
small growth
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
duoden/o
duodenum
jejun/o
jejunum
ile/o
ileum
append/o
appendix
appendic/o
appendix
col/o
colon
colon/o
colon
proct/o
anus, rectum
rect/o
rectum
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
vagin/o
vagina
path/o
disease
cholangi/o
bile vessel
chol/e
bile, gall
-algia
pain
-dynia
pain
-emesis
vomiting
-megaly
enlargement
-orexia
appetite
-pepsia
digestion
-phagia
swallowing, eating
-rrhea
discharge, flow
-al
pertaining to
-itis
inflammation
-ar
pertaining to
-ic
pertaining to
-ism
condition
-osis
abnormal condition
-logy
study of
-logist
specialist in the study of
-ist
specialist
-eal
pertaining to
-ous
pertaining to
-ia
condition
-scopy
visual examination
-scope
instrument for visual examination
-ectomy
excision, removal
-plasty
surgical repair
-tome
instrument for incision
-tomy
incision
-oma
tumor
-lysis
separation
-cyte
cell
-ice
noun ending
-ary
pertaining to
-graphy
process of recording
-meter
instrument for measuring
-toxic
poison
-ile
pertaining to
-ior
pertaining to
-tripsy
crushing
-eal
pertaining to
-cele
hernia, swelling
-stomy
forming an opening
-rrhaphy
suture
-pathy
disease
-stenosis
narrowing
-spasm
involuntary contraction
-iasis
abnormal condition
-prandial
meal
-ole
small, minute
-lith
stone, calculus
sub-
below, under
hyper-
excessive, above, normal
peri-
around
dys-
bad, painful, difficult
epi-
above, on
dia-
through, across
post-
after, behind
extra-
outside
hypo-
under, below, deficient
ab-
from, away from
ultra-
excess, beyond
mouth
opening through which food passes into the body
tongue
consists mostly of skeletal muscle; attached in the posterior region of the mouth; it provides movement of food for mastication, directs food to the pharynx for swallowing, and is a major organ for taste and speech
palate
separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
soft palate
posterior portion, not supported by bone
hard palate
anterior portion, supported by bone
uvula
soft V-shaped mass that extends from the soft palate; directs food into the throat
pharynx, throat
performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth into the esophagus
esophagus
10-inch tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach
j-shaped sac that mixes and stores food; it secretes chemicals for digestion and hormones for local communication control
cardia
area around the opening of the esophagus
fundus
uppermost domed portion of the stomach
body
central portion of the stomach
antrum
lower portion of the stomach
pylorus
portion of the stomach that connects to the small intestine
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
small intestine
20-foot canal extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine
duodenum
first 10-12 inches of the small intestine
jejunum
second portion of the small intestine, approximately 8 feet long
ileum
third portion of the small intestine, approximately 11 feet long, which connects with the large intestine
large intestine
canal that is approximately 5 feet long and extends from the ileum to the anus
cecum
blind U-shaped pouch that is the first portion of the large intestine
colon
next portion of the large intestine; the colon is divided into four parts; ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon
rectum
remaining portion of the large intestine, approximately 8-10 inches long, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus
anus
sphincter muscle (ringlike band of muscle fiber that keeps an opening tight) at the end of the digestive tract
salivary glands
produce saliva, which flows into the mouth
liver
produces bile, which is necessary for the digestion of fats. The liver performs many other functions concerned with digestion and metabolism
bile ducts
passageways that carry bile; the hepatic duct is a passageway for bile from the liver, and the cystic duct carries bile from the gallbladder. They join to form the common bile duct, which conveys bile to the duodenum; these passageways are referred to as the biliary tract
gallbladder
small, saclike structure that stores bile
pancreas
produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and secretes insulin for carbohydrate metabolism
peritoneum
serous saclike lining of the abdominal wall and pelvic cavities
appendix
small pouch, which has no function in digestion, attached to the cecum
abdomen
portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis
an/o
anus
antr/o
antrum
cec/o
cecum
col/o, colon/o
colon
dueden/o
duodenum
enter/o
intestine
esphag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
ile/o
ilieum
jejun/o
jejunum
or/o, stomat/o
mouth
proct/o, rect/o
rectum
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
abdomin/o, cell/o, lapar/o
abdomen
appendic/o
appendix
cheil/o
lip
cholangi/o
bile duct
chol/e
gall, bile
choledoch/o
common bile duct
diverticul/o
diverticulum, or blind puch, extending from a hollow organ
gingiv/o
gum
gloss/o, lingu/o
tongue
hepat/o
liver
herni/o
hernia, or protrusion of an organ through a membrane or cavity wall
palat/o
palate
pancreat/o
pancreas
peritone/o
peritoneum
polyp/o
polyp, small growth
pylor/o
pylorus, pyloric sphincter
sial/o
saliva, salivary gland
steat/o
fat
uvul/o
uvula
hemi-
half
-pepsia
digestion
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
cholangioma
tumor of the bile duct
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
choledocholithiasis
condition of stones in the common bile duct
cholelithiasis
condition of the gallstones
diverticulitis
inflammation of a diverticulum
diverticulosis
abnormal condition of having diverticula
esophagitis
inflammation of the esophagus
gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach and intestines
gastroenterocolitis
inflammation of the stomach, intestines, and colon
gingivitis
inflammation of the gums
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
hepatoma
tumor of the liver
palatitis
inflammation of the palate
pancreatitits
inflammation of the pancreas
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
polyposis
abnormal condition of polyps
proctoptosis
prolapse of the rectum
rectocele
protrusion of the rectum
sialolith
stone in the salivary gland
steatohepatitis
inflammation of the liver associated with fat
uvulitis
inflammation of the uvula
adhesion
abnormal growing together of two surfaces that normally are separated
anorexia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea in females
bullimia nervosa
an eating disorder involving gorging with food, followed by induced vomiting or laxative abuse
cirrhosis
chronic disease of theliver with gradual destrucition of cells and formation of scar tissue; commonly caused by alcoholism
crohn disease
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract usually affecting the ileum and characterized by cobblestone ulcerations and the formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction; also called regiional ileitis or regional enteristis
duodenal ulcer
ulcer in the duodenum
gastic ulcer
ulcer in the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease
the abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestional contents into the esophagus, causingheartburn and the gradual breakdown of the mucous barrier of the esophagus
hemochromatosis
an iron metabolism disorder that occurs when too much iron is absorbed from food, resulting in excessive deposits of iron in the tissue
hemorrhoid
varicose vein in the rectal area, which may be internal or external
ileus
obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis
intussusception
telescoping of a segment of the intestine
irritable bowel syndrome
periodic disturbances of bowel function, such as diarrhea and/or constipation
obesity
exess of body fat
peptic ulcer
another name for gastric or duodenal ulcer
polyp
tumorlike growth extending outward from a mucous membrane; usually benign
ulcerative colitis
inflammation of the colon with the formation of ulcers
volvulus
twisting or kinking of the intestine,causing intestinal obstruction
abdominocentesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity
abdominoplasty
surgical repair of the abdomen
anoplasty
surgical repair of the anus
antrectomy
excision of the antrum
appendicectomy
excision of the appendix
celiotomy
incision into the abdominal cavity
cheilorrhaphy
suture of the lip
cholecystectomy
excision of the gallbladder
choledocholithotomy
incision into the common bile duct to remove a stone
colectomy
excision of the colon
colostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the colon
diverticulectomy
excision of a diverticulum
enterorrhaphy
suture of the intestine
esophagogastroplasty
surgical repair of the esophagus and the stomach
gastrectomy
excision of the stomach
gastrojejunostomy
creation of an artificial opening between the stomach and jejunum
gastroplasty
surgical repair of the stomach
gastrostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the stomach
gingivectomy
surgical removal of gum
glossorrhaphy
suture of the tongue
hemicolectomy
excision of half of the colon
herniorrhaphy
suturing of a hernia
ileostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the ileum
laparotomy
incision into the abdomen
palatoplasty
surgical repair of the palate
polypectomy
excision of a polyp
pyloromyotomy
incision into the pyloric muscle
pyloroplasty
surgical repair of the pylorus
uvulectomy
excision of the uvula
uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP)
surgical repair of the uvula, palate, and pharynx
abdominoperineal resection (A&P resection)
removal of the colon and rectum through both abdominal and perineal approaches; performed to treat colorectal cancer and inflammatory diseases of the lower large intestine
anastomosis
an opening created by surgically joining two structures, such as blood vessels or bowel segments
bariatric surgery
surgical reduction of gastric capacity to treat morbid obesity
hemorrhoidectomy
excision of hemorrhoids
vagotomy
cutting of certain branches of the vagus nerve, performed with gastric surgery to reduce the amount of gastric acid produced and thus reduce the recurrence of ulcers
cholangiogram
radiographic image of bile ducts
cholangiography
radiographic imaging of the bile ducts (after administration of contrast media to outline the ducts)
cholecystogram
radiographic image of the gallbladder
CT colonography
radiographic imaging of the colon (using a CT scanner and software)
esophagogram
radiographic image of the esophagus (barium is used as a contrast media; also called esophagram and barium swallow)
colonoscope
instrument used for visual examination of the colon
colonoscopy
visual examination of the colon
endoscope
instrument used for visual examination within a hollow organ
endoscopy
visual examination within a hollow organ
esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, and deodenum
esophagoscope
instrument for visual examination of the esophagus
esophagoscopy
visual examination of the esophagus
gastroscope
instrument used for visual examination of the stomach
gastroscopy
visual examination of the stomach
laparoscope
instrument used for visual examination of the abdominal cavity
laparoscopy
visual examination of the abdominal cavity
proctoscope
instrument used for visual examination of the rectum
proctoscopy
visual examination of the rectum
sigmoidoscope
instrument used for visual examination of the sigmoid colon
sigmoidoscopy
visual examination of the sigmoid colon
abdominal ultrasonography
process of recording images of internal organs using high-frequency sound waves produced by a transducer placed directly on the skin. Images may be viewed on a monitor and or recoreded for later use
barium enema (BE)
series of radiographic images taken of the large intestine after a barium enema has been administered rectally
upper GI (gastrointestinal) series
series of radiographic images taken of the stomach and duodenum after barium has been swallowed
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
radiographic examination of the biliary tract and pancreatic ducts with contrast media, fluoroscopy, and endoscopy
endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)
a procedure using an endoscope fitted with an ultrasound probe that provides images of layers of the intestinal wall
fecal occult blood test (FOBT)
a test to detect occult blood in feces
helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibodies test
a blood test to determine the presence of H. pylori bacteria
abdominal
pertaining to the abdomen
anal
pertaining to the anus
aphagia
without swallowing (the inablility to)
colorectal
pertaining to the colon and rectum
dyspepsia
difficult digestion
dysphagia
difficult swallowing
gastrodynia
pain in the stomach
gastroenterologist
a physician who studies and treats diseases of the stomach and intestines
gastroenterology
study of the stomach and intestines
gastromalacia
softening of the stomach
glossopathy
disease of the tongue
ileocecal
pertaining to the ileum and cecum
nasogastric
pertaining to the nose and stomach
oral
pertaining to the mouth
pancreatic
pertaining to the pancreas
peritoneal
pertaining to the peritoneum
proctologist
physician who studies and treats diseases of the rectum
proctology
study of the rectum
rectal
pertaining to the rectum
steatorrhea
discharge of fat (excessive amount of fat in the stool)
steatosis
abnormal condition of fat
stomatogastric
pertaining to the mouth and stomach
sublingual
pertaining to under the tongue
ascites
abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
diarrhea
frequent discharge of liquied stool
dysentery
disorder that involves inflammation of the intestine (usually the large intestine) associated with diarrhea and abdominal pain
emesis
expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth; also called vomiting
feces
waste from the digestive tract expelled through the rectum; also called stool or fecal matter
flatus
gas in the digestive tract or expelled through the anus
gastric lavage
washing out of the stomach
gavage
process of feeding a person through a nasogastric tube
hematemesis
vomiting of blood
hematochezia
passage of bloody feces
melena
black, tarry stool that contains digested blood; usually result of bleeding in the upper GI tract
nausea
urge to vomit
peristalsis
involuntary wavelike contractions that propel food along the digestive tract
reflux
abnormal backward flow
stoma
surgical opening between an organ and the surface of the body
vomiting
expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth
A&P resection
abdominoperineal resection
BE
barium enema
EGD
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ERCP
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
EUS
endoscopic ultrasound
FOBT
fecal occult blood test
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI
gastrointestinal
H. pylori
helicobacter pylori
IBS
irritable bowel syndrome
N&V
nausea and vomiting
PEG
percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
UGI
upper gastrointestinal
UPPP
uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
an/o
anus
cec/o
cecum
col/o and colon/o
colon
duoden/o
duodenum
enter/o
intestine
esophag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
ile/o
ileum
jejun/o
jejunum
or/o and stomat/o
mouth
proct/o and rect/o
rectum
sigmoid/o
sigmoid
abdomin/o
abdomen
celi/o
abdomen
lapar/o
abdomen
appendic/o
appendix
cheil/o
lips
cholangi/o
bile duct
chol/e
gall bladder
diverticul/o
diverticulum
gingiv/o
gums
gloss/o and lingu/o
tongue
hepat/o
liver
herni/o
hernia
palat/o
palate
pancreat/o
pancreas
peritone/o
peritoneum
polyp/o
polyp
pylor/o
pyloric sphincter
uvul/o
uvula
hemi
half
pepsia
digestion
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
cholecystitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder
cholelithiasis
stones in the gallbladder
diverticulitis
inflammation of the diverticulum
diverticulosis
having diverticula
esophagitis
inflammation of esophagus
gastritis
inflammation of stomach
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach and intestines
gastroenterocolitis
inflammation of the stomach, intestines and colon
gingivitis
inflammation of the gums
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
hepatoma
tumor of the liver
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritonum
rectocele
protrusion of the rectum
adhesion
abnormal growing together of two surfaces that are normally seperated
anorexia nervosa
prolonged refusal to eat
bulimia nervosa
bingeing and purging
cirrhosis
chronic disease of liver, often caused by alcoholism
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
back flow of gastro contents into esophagus
hemorrhoids
varicose vein in the rectal area
ileus
obstruction of intestine
intussusception
telescoping of segment of intestine
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
disturbance of bowel function
peptic ulcer
ulcer in stomach or duodenum
ulcerative colitis
15-30 stools per day
volvulus
twisting or kinking of intestine
abdominocentesis
puncture to remove fluid from abdominal cavity
appendectomy
excision of appendix
cheilorrhaphy
suture of the lip
cholecystectomy
excision of the gallbladder
colectomy
excision of the colon
colostomy
artificial opening into the colon
gastrectomy
removal of stomach
gastrostomy
artificial opening into stomach
glossorrhaphy
suture of the tongue
hemicolectomy
excision of half the colon
herniorrhaphy
suture of a hernia
ileostomy
creation of artificial opening to ileum
laparotomy
incision into abdomen
palatoplasty
repair of palate
polypectomy
excision of polyp
pyloroplasty
surgical repair of pylorus
anastomosis
surgical connection between two normally distinct structures
bariatric surgery
surgical reduction of gastric capacity, to treat morbid obesity
hemorrhoidectomy
excision of hemorrhoids
vagotomy
cutting of branches of vagus nerve
cholangiogram/cholangiography
radiographic image of bile duct
cholecystogram
radiographic image of gallbladder
colonscope/colonoscopy
instrument used for visual exam of the colon
endoscope/endoscopy
instrument used for visual examination of a hollow organ
esophagoscopy
visual examination of the esophagus
gastroscope/gastroscopy
visual examination of the stomach
laparoscope/laparoscopy
used for visual examination of the abdominal cavity
proctoscope/proctoscopy
used for visual exam of rectum
sigmoidoscope/sigmoidoscopy
instrument used for visual examination of sigmoid colon
barium enema
xray image of large intestine
Upper GI series
xray images of stomach or duodenum after barium is swallowed
H. pylori blood test
blood test to detect presence of bacteria that cause peptic ulcers
anal
pertaining to the anus
aphagia
without swallowing
colorectal
pertaining to the colon and rectum
dyspepsia
difficult digestion
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
gastroenterologist/gastroenterology
study of stomach and intestines
nasogastric
pertaining to the nose and stomach
pancratic
pertaining to the pancreas
peritoneal
pertaining to the peritoneum
proctologist
physician of the rectum
rectal
pertaining to the rectum
sublingual
pertaining to under the tongue
ascites
abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
gastric lavage
washing out of stomach
gavage
feeding person through nasogastric tube
melena
black tarry stool contains digested blood
nausea
urge to vomit
peristalsis
involuntary wavelike contractions
stoma
surgical opening
accessory organs
organs that aid with digestion, but are not part of the digestive system. these include the liver, gallbladder and pancreas
gastr/o
WORD PART:
stomach
...
upper GI tract
consists of the mouth, esophagus & stomach
lower GI tract
consists of the small and large intestines (bowels), plus the rectum and anus
oral cavity
major structures include the lips, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth and the periodontium
labia
lips; form the opening to the oral cavity. during eating they hold food in the mouth and aid the tongue and cheeks in guiding food between the teeth for chewing
labial frenum
the narrow bands of tissue that attach the lips to the jaws
hard palate
the bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane
ragae
irregular ridges or folds in the mucous membrane
soft palate
the flexible posterior portion of the palate. it has the important role of closing off the nasal passage during swallowing to prevent food and liquid from moving upward into the nasal cavity
uvula
hangs from the free edge of the soft palate. during swallowing, it moves upward with the soft palate. it also plays an important role in snoring and in the formation of some speech sounds
dorsum
the upper surface of the tongue
papillae
small bumps of the surface of the tongue
taste buds
sensory receptors for the sense of taste
sublingual
under the tongue
lingual frenum
attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its motion
periodontium
consists of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth
gingiva
gums; the specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches and lines the teeth
temporomandibular joint
formed at the back of the mouth where the maxillary and mandibular arches come together. the maxillary arch, which is part of the skull, does not move. the mandibular arch, which is a separate bone, is the moveable component of this joint
dentition
the natural teeth arranged in the upper and lower jaws
primary dentition
deciduous dentition; baby teeth; consists of 20 teeth that are normally lost during childhood and are replaced by the permanent teeth. these include 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 molars and no premolars
permanent dentition
consists of 32 teeth that are designed to last a lifetime. these teeth include 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars and 12 molars
endentulous
without teeth
occlusion
any contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth
malocclusion
any deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth
crown
the portion of a tooth that is visible in the mouth
enamel
cover the crown of the tooth, hardest substance in the body
roots
hold the tooth securely in place within the dental arch
cementum
protect the roots of a tooth, strong, but not as much as enamel
cervix
where the crown and root of a tooth meet
dentin
makes up the bulk of the tooth structure and is protected on the outer surfaces by the enamel and the cementum
pulp
consists of a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves that supply nutrients and innervation to the tooth
saliva
a colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing
salivary glands
secrete saliva that is carried by ducts into the mouth
parotid glands
located on the face in front of and slightly lower than each ear. the ducts for these glands are on the inside of the cheek near the upper molars
sublingual glands
these glands + their ducts are located on the floor of the mouth under the tongue
submandibular glands
these glands + their ducts are located on the floor of the mouth near the mandible
epiglottis
a lid-like structure that closes off the entrance to the trachea to prevent food and liquids from moving from the pharynx during swallowing
esophagus
the muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the pharynx to the stomach
lower esophageal sphincter
cardiac sphincter; gastroesophageal sphincter; a muscular ring that controls the flow between the esophagus and stomach. the sphincter normally opens to allow the flow of food into the stomach and closes to prevent the stomach contents from regurgitating into the esophagus
regurgitate
to flow backwards
rugae
the folds in the mucosa lining the stomach. glands located within these folds produce gastric juices that aid in digestion and mucus to create a protective coating on the lining of the stomach
pylorus
the narrow passage that connects the stomach with the small intestine
pyloric sphincter
the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine
small intestine
a coiled organ up to 20 feet in length. it consists of 3 sections where food is digested and the nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream
duodenum
first section of the small intestine
jejunum
second portion of the small intestine
ileum
third portion of the small intestine, longest section
large intestine
where waste product of digestion are processes in preparation for excretion through the anus
cecum
a pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen
ileocecal sphincter
the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum of the large intestine
colon
the longest portion of the large intestine which is subdivided into four parts
ascending colon
travels from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver
transverse colon
passes horizontally from right to left toward the spleen
descending colon
travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity into the sigmoid colon
sigmoid colon
an S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above and joins with the rectum
rectum
the widest division of the large intestine, makes up the last 4 inches of the large intestine and ends at the anus
anus
the lower opening of the digestive tract. the flow of waste is controlled by the external and internal anal sphincters
anorectal
refers to the anus and rectum as a single unit
an/o
WORD PART:
anus
...
rect/o
WORD PART:
rectum
...
liver
a large organ located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. it has several important functions related to removing toxins from the blood and turning food into the fuel and nutrients the body needs. it removes excess glucose and stores it as glycogen. when the blood sugar is low, it converts glycogen back into glucose and releases it for use by the body. it also destroys old RBCs, removes toxins from the blood and manufactures some blood proteins
hepat/o
WORD PART:
liver
...
bilirubin
the pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin, released by the liver in bile
bile
aids in the digestion of fats, a digestive juice secreted by the liver. it travels from the liver to the gallbladder where it is concentrated and stored
biliary tree
provides the channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine
gallbladder
a pear-shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver. it stores and concentrates the bile for later use
cholecyst/o
WORD PART:
gallbladder
...
pancreas
a soft, 6' long oblong gland that is located behind the stomach. this gland has important roles in both the digestive and endocrine systems. it produces and secretes pancreatic juices that aid in digestion and contain sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize stomach acids and digestive enzymes
pancreat/o
WORD PART:
pancreas
...
digestion
the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use
digestive enzymes
responsible for the chemical changes that break foods down into simpler forms of nutrients for use by the body
nutrient
a substance, usually from food, that is necessary for normal functioning of the body. the primary ones are carbohydrates, fats and proteins
metabolism
all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients
metabol/o
WORD PART:
change
...
anabolism
the building up of body cells and substances from nutrients
catabolism
the breaking down of body cells and substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide
absorption
the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body
villi
the mucosa that lines the small intestine and is covered with these finger-like projections
mastication
chewing; breaks food down into smaller pieces, mixes it with saliva and prepares it to be swallowed
bolus
a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed
peristalsis
a series of wave-like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction
chyme
the semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter and into the small intestine
emulsification
the process by which bile breaks up large fat globules so enzymes in the pancreatic juices can digest the fats
feces
stools; solid body wastes expelled through the rectum and anus
defecation
bowel movement; the evacuation or emptying of the large intestine
borborygmus
the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
flatulence
flatus; the passage of gas out of the body through the rectum
bariatrics
the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases
dentist
specialized in treating diseases and disorders of the teeth and tissues of the oral cavity
gastroenterologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines
gastr/o
WORD PART:
stomach
...
enter/o
WORD PART:
small intestine
...
internist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the internal organs and related body systems
orthodontist
a dental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusion of the teeth and related facial structures
orth/o
WORD PART:
straight or normal
...
odont/o
WORD PART:
teeth
...
periodontist
a dental specialist who prevents or treats disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth
proctologist
a physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum and anus
proct/o
WORD PART:
anus and rectum
...
aphthous ulcers
canker sores; grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth. appearance is associated with stress, certain foods or fever
cheilosis
cheilitis; a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth
cheil/o
WORD PART:
lips
...
herpes labialis
cold sores; fever blisters; blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HVS-1). most adults have been infected by this extremely common virus, and in some, it becomes re-activated periodically causing cold sores
oral thrush
develops when the fungus candida albicans grows out of control. the symptoms are creamy white lesions on the tongue or inner cheeks, and this condition occurs most often in infants, older adults with weakened immune systems, or individuals who have been taking antibiotics
stomatomycosis
any disease of the mouth due to a fungus
stomat/o
WORD PART:
mouth or oral cavity
...
stomatorrhagia
bleeding from any part of the mouth
trismus
any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer. this condition causes difficulty in speaking and affects the patient's nutrition due to impaired ability to chew and swallow
xerostomia
dry mouth; the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands. this condition can be due to medications or radiation of the salivary glands, and can cause discomfort, difficulty in swallowing, changes in the taste of food and dental decay
xer/o
WORD PART:
dry
...
cleft lip
a birth defect in which there is a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose as a result of the failure of this portion of the lip to close during prenatal development
cleft palate
the failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus. this opening can involve the upper lip, hard palate, and/or soft palate. if not corrected, this opening between the nose and mouth makes it difficult for the child to eat and speak
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)
trench mouth; caused by the abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth. as this condition progresses, the inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration and the death of gum tissue become more severe
bruxism
the involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress. it wears away tooth structure, damages periodontal tissues and injures the temporomandibular joint
dental calculus
tartar; dental plaque that had calcified on the teeth. these deposits irritate the surrounding tissues and cause increasingly serious periodontal diseases
dental caries
tooth decay; cavity; an infectious diseases caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin of the tooth. if the decay process in not arrested, the pulp can be exposed and become infected
dental plaque
a major cause of dental caries and periodontal diseases. forms as soft deposits in sheltered areas near the gums and between the teeth. it consists of bacteria and bacterial by-products
gingivitis
the earliest stage of periodontal disease, and the inflammation only affects the gums
gingiv/o
WORD PART:
gums
...
halitosis
bad breath; an unpleasant odor coning from the mouth that can be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders
halit/o
WORD PART:
breath
...
periodontal diseases
peridontitis; an inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth. this progressive disease is classified according to the degree of tissue involvement. in severe cases, the gums and bone surrounding the teeth are involved
temporomandibular disorder
part of the group of complex symptoms that include pain, headache or difficulty in chewing that are related to the functioning of the temporomandibular joint
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
-phagia
WORD PART:
swallowing
...
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus. when this occurs, the stomach acid irritates and damages the delicate lining of the esophagus
pyrosis
heartburn; the burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus
esophageal varices
enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus. severe bleeding occurs if one of these veins ruptures
hiatal hernia
a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm
hiat/o
WORD PART:
opening
...
gastritis
a common inflammation of the stomach lining that is often caused by the bacterium helicobacter pylori
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach and intestines
gastrorrhea
the excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucus in the stomach
peptic ulcers
sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system. they are caused by the bacterium helicobacter pylori or by medications, such as aspirin, that irritate the mucous membranes
pept/o
WORD PART:
digestion
...
ulcer
an erosion of the skin or mucous membrane
gastric ulcers
peptic ulcers that occur in the stomach
duodenal ulcers
peptic ulcers that occur in the upper part of the small intestine
perforating ulcer
a complication of a peptic ulcer in which the ulcer erodes through the entire thickness of the organ wall
anorexia
the loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance. this leads to an intense fear of gaining weight and refusal to maintain a normal body weight. voluntary starvation and excessive exercising often cause the patient to become emaciated
emaciated
abnormally thin
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics or other medications
bulimia
continuous, excessive hunger
cachexia
a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS. although these patients are eating enough, the wasting happens because their bodies are unable to absorb the nutrients
pica
an abnormal craving or appetite for nonfood substances, such as dirt, paint or clay that lasts for at least 1 month
dehydration
a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance
malnutrition
a lack of proper food or nutrients in the body due to a shortage of food, poor eating habits or the inability of the body to digest, absorb and distribute these nutrients
malabsorption
a condition in which the small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food that passes through it
obesity
an excessive accumulation of fat in the body
obese
a term used to refer to individuals who are more than 20-30% over the established weight standards for their height, age and gender
morbid obesity
the condition of weighing two to three times, or more, than the ideal weight or having a body mass index value greater than 39
body mass index
a number that shows body weight adjusted for height. the results fall into one of these categories: underweight, normal, overweight or obese
comorbidity
the presence of more than one disease or health condition in an individual at a given time
aerophagia
the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking. is a common cause of gas in the stomach
dyspepsia
indigestion; pain or discomfort in digestion
emesis
vomiting; the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth
eructation
the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach
hematemesis
the vomiting of blood
hyperemesis
extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration
nausea
the urge to vomit
regurgitation
the return of swallowed food into the mouth
colorectal carcinoma
colon cancer that often manifests itself in polyps in the colon
diverticulosis
the presence of a number of diverticula in the colon
diverticulum
a small pouch or sac occurring in the lining or wall of a tubular organ such as the colon
diverticulitis
the inflammation of one or more diverticula in the colon
enteritis
an inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens
ileus
the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine. it is caused by the cessation of intestinal peristalsis. symptoms can include severe pain, cramping, abdominal distention, vomiting and the failure to pas gas or stools
postoperative ileus
a temporary impairment of bowel motility that is considered to be a normal response to abdominal surgery. it is often present for 24-72 hours depending on what part of the digestive system was treated
inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS)
spastic colon; a common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation and/or diarrhea. this condition, which is usually aggravated by stress, is not caused by pathogens or by structural changes
ulcerative colitis
a chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation. it usually starts in the rectum and progresses upward to the lower part of the colon; however, it can affect the entire large intestine. it affects only the innermost lining and not the deep tissues of the colon
col/o
WORD PART:
colon
...
crohn's disease (CD)
a chronic autoimmune disorder than can occur anywhere in the digestive tract; however, it is most often found in the ileum and in the colon. it usually penetrates every layer of tissue in the affected area. this commonly results in scarring and thickening of the walls of the affected structures
regional ileitis
CD that affects the ileum
crohn's colitis
CD that affects the colon
intestinal obstruction
the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine caused by a physical obstruction. this blockage can result from many causes such as scar tissue or a tumor
intestinal adhesions
abnormally hold together parts of the intestine that normally should be separate
strangulating obstruction
causes the blood flow to segment of the intestine to be cut off. this can lead to gangrene and perforation
gangrene
tissue death usually associated with loss of circulation
perforation
a hole through the wall of a structure
volvulus
the twisting of the intestine on itself that causes an obstruction. this condition usually occurs in infancy
intussusception
the telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part. this is a rare condition sometimes found in infants and young children
inguinal hernia
the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin. this condition can be caused by obesity, pregnancy, heavy lifting or straining to pass a stool
strangulated hernia
occurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off
anal fissure
a small crack-like sore on the skin of the anus that can cause severe pain during a bowel movement
bowel incontinence
the inability to control the excretion of feces
constipation
having a bowel movement fewer than three times a week. stools are usually hard, dry, small in size and difficult to eliminate
diarrhea
an abnormal frequent flow of loose or watery stools that can lead to dehydration
hemorrhoids
piles; occur when a cluster of veins, muscles and tissues slip near or through the anal opening. the veins can become inflamed, resulting in pain, fecal leakage and bleeding
melena
the passage of black, tarry and foul-smelling stools. this appearance of the stools is caused by the presence of digested blood and often indicates an injury or disorder in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract
amebic dysentery
amebiasis; transmitted by food or water that is contaminated due to poor sanitary conditions. caused by the one-celled parasite entamoeba histolytica. in the mild form, symptoms include loose stools, stomach pain and stomach cramping. in the severe form, there can be bloody stools and fever
botulism
food poisoning; a rare, but very serious, condition transmitted through contaminated food or an infected wound. it is caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum. this is among the most poisonous toxins known to man. symptoms are paralysis and sometimes death
cholera
transmitted through contact with contaminated food or water. caused by the bacterium vibrio cholerae. symptoms start with diarrhea and can progress to profuse diarrhea, vomiting and rapid dehydration that can be fatal if not treated
e.coli
transmitted through contaminated foods that have not been properly cooked. caused by the bacterium escherichia coli. symptoms include bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramping that can be severe, or fatal, in the very young and the elderly
salmonellosis
salmonella; transmitted by food that is contaminated by feces. caused by the bacterium salmonella. symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and high fever
typhoid fever
enteric fever; caused by eating food that has been handled by a typhoid-carrier. caused by the bacteria salmonella typhi. symptoms include headache, delirium, cough, watery diarrhea, rash and a high fever
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
hepatomegaly
the abnormal enlargement of the liver
jaundice
a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and the eyes. this condition is caused by greater-than-normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
cirrhosis
a progressive degenerative disease of the liver that is often caused by excessive alcohol use or by viral hepatitis B or C
hepatitis a virus (HAV)
the most prevalent type of hepatitis. caused by the highly contagious HAV virus and is transmitted mainly through contaminated food and water
hepatitis b virus (HBV)
a blood-borne disease that is transmitted through contact with blood and other body fluids that are contaminated with this virus. a vaccine is available to provide immunity
hepatitis c virus (HCV)
a blood-borne disease that is spread through contact with blood and other body fluids that are contaminated with this virus. it is describes as a silent epidemic because it can be present in the body for years, and destroy the liver, before any symptoms appear. there is no vaccine available
hepatitis d virus (HDV)
a blood-borne disease that only occurs as a co-infection with B infection. although there is no specific vaccine, the hepatitis b vaccine should be given to prevent a HBV/HDV co-infection
hepatitis e virus (HEV)
transmitted through contaminated food and water, not common in the US
ascites
an abnormal accumulation of seros fluid in the peritoneal cavity
caput medusae
the distended and engorges veins that are visible radiating from the umbilicus
hobnail liver
the lumpy appearance of the liver surface due to cirrhosis
nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
a range of conditions characterized by an accumulation of fat within the liver that affect people who drink little or no alcohol. those with this condition most commonly are middle-aged individuals who are obese and may also have diabetes and elevated cholesterol
steatosis
the mildest type of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. it is characterized by accumulations of fat within the liver that usually does not cause liver damage
steat/o
WORD PART:
fat
...
nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
a more severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. it consists of fatty accumulations plus liver-damaging inflammation. in some cases, this will progress to cirrhosis, irreversible liver scarring or liver cancer
cholangitis
an acute infection of the bile duct characterized by pain in the upper-right quadrant of the abdomen, fever and jaundice
choleang/o
WORD PART:
bile duct
...
cholecystalgia
pain in the gallbladder
cholecyst/o
WORD PART:
gallbladder
...
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones blocking the flow of bile
gallstone
biliary calculus; cholelith; a hard deposit formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concentration of bile components
cholelithiasis
the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
-lithiasis
WORD PART:
presence of stones
...
abdominal computed tomography (CT)
a radiographic procedure that produces a detailed crss-section of the tissue structure within the abdomen, showing, for example, the presence of a timor or obstruction
abdominal ultrasound
a noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves
anoscopy
the visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum
an/o
WORD PART:
anus
...
speculum
an instrument used to enlarge the opening of any body cavity to facilitate inspection of its interior
capsule endoscopy
a tiny video camera in a capsule that the patient swallows. for approximately 8 hours as it passes through the small intestine, this camera transmits images of the walls of the small intestine. the images are detected by sensor devices attached to the patient's abdomen and transmitted to a data recorder worn of the patient's belt
cholangiography
a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium. this test is used to identify obstructions in the liver or bile ducts that slow or block the flow of bile from the liver
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
an endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract which includes the esophagus, stomach and upper duodenum
barium swallow
radiographic study used to examine the upper GI tract
barium enema
radiographic study used to examine the lower GI tract
hemoccult test
fecal occult blood test; a laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools. a test kit i s used to obtain the specimens at home and these are then evaluated in a laboratory or physician's office
stool samples
specimens of feces that are examined for content and characteristics
endoscope
an instrument used for visual examination of internal structures
polyps
mushroom-like growths from the surface of the mucous membrane
colonoscopy
the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum
sigmoidoscopy
the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon and possibly a portion of the descending colon
enema
the placement of a solution into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity. it is part of the preparation for an endoscopy, however it is also used to treat severe constipation
antacids
taken to relieve the discomfort of conditions such as pyrosis or to help peptic ulcers heal. they neutralize acids in the stomach
acid reducers
decrease the amount of acid produced by the stomach. are used to treat the symptoms of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease
antiemetic
a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting
laxatives
medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements
oral rehydration therapy (ORT)
a treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract the dehydration that can accompany severe diarrhea, especially in young children
dental prophylaxis
the professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus
prophylaxis
a treatment intended to prevent a disease or stop it from spreading
gingivectomy
the surgical removal of diseased gingival tissue
maxillofacial surgery
specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases and repair injuries
palatoplasty
surgical repair of a cleft lip and/or palate
stomatoplasty
surgical repair of the mouth
gastrectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
nasogastric intubation
the placement of a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach. this tube, which is placed temporarily, provides nutrition for patients who cannot take sufficient nutrients by mouth
gastrostomy tube
a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach of the body into the stomach. this tube, which is placed permanently, provides nutrition for patients who cannot swallow or take sufficient nutrients by mouth
total parenteral nutrition
administered to patients who cannot, or should not, get their nutrition through eating. all of the patient's nutritional requirements are met through a nutritional liquid that is administered intravenously for 10-12 hours, once a day or five times a week
parenteral
not in or through the digestive system
bariatric surgery
performed to treat morbid obesity by restricting the amount of food that can enter the stomach and be digested. these procedures limit food intake and fore dietary changes that enable weight reduction
gastric bypass surgery
surgically makes the stomach smaller and causes food to bypass the first part of the small intestine. this procedure is not reversible
gastric lap-band
procedure that involves placing a band around the exterior of the stomach to restrict the amount of food that can enter the stomach. this procedure has the advantage of being reversible through the removal of the band
colectomy
the surgical removal of all, or part of, the colon
diverticulectomy
the surgical removal of a diverticulum
gastroduodenostomy
the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum. this procedure is performed to treat stomach cancer or to remove a malfunctioning pyloric valve
anastomosis
a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures
ileectomy
the surgical removal of the ileum
ostomy
a surgical procedure to create an artificial opening between an organ and the body surface. this opening is called a stoma
ileostomy
the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the outside of the abdominal wall
colostomy
the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface. the segment below the ostomy is usually removed and the fecal matter flows through the stoma into a disposable bag. it can also be temporary to divert feces from an area that needs to heal
hemerrhoidectomy
the surgical removal of hemorrhoids
rubber band ligation
rubber bands cut off the circulation at the base of the hemorrhoid, causing it to eventually fall off
proctectomy
the surgical removal of the rectum
proct/o
WORD PART:
rectum
...
proctopexy
the surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ
-pexy
WORD PART:
surgical fixation
...
prolapse
the falling or dropping down of an organ or internal part
proctoplasty
the surgical repair of the rectum
hepatectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the liver
hepatorrhaphy
the surgical suturing of the liver
partial liver transplant
only part of the liver is donated because the liver regenerates
choledocholithotomy
an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones
choledoch/o
WORD PART:
common bile duct
...
cholecystectomy
the surgical removal of the gallbladder
chol/e
WORD PART:
bile, gall
...
dent/o
teeth
odont/o
teeth
gingiv/o
gum(s)
gloss/o
tongue
lingu/o
tongue
or/o
mouth
stomat/o
mouth
ptyal/o
saliva
sial/o
saliva, salivary gland
pharyng/o
pharynx (throat)
gastr/o
stomach
pylor/o
pylorus
-algi,-dynia
pain
-emesis
vomiting
-megaly
enlargment
-orexia
appetite
-pepsia
digestion
-phagia
swallowing, eating
-rrhea
discharge, flow
maxill/o
jaw
sub-
below
myc/o
fungus
BM
bowel movement
FBS
fasting blood sugar
Dx
diagnosis
GI
gastroinestinal
esophag/o
esophagus
duoden/o
duodenum
gastr/o
stomach
appendic/o
appendix
chol/e
bile, gall
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
choledoch/o
bile ductd
chol/o, colon
colon
enter/o
intestine (usually small intestine)
aer/o
air
carcin/o
cancer
cirrh/o, jaund/o
yellow
corpor/o
body
hemat/o, hem/o
blood
lith/o
stone, calculus
hepat/o
liver
ile/o
ileum (third part of small intestine)
jejun/o
jejunum (secon part of small intestine)
pancreat/o
pancreas
proct/o
anus, rectum
rect/o
rectum
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
nas/o
nose
orth/o
straight
polyp/o
small growth
son/o
sound
therm/o
heat
tom/o
to cut
tox/o, toxic/o
poison
-ectomy
excision, removal
-stomy
forming an opening (mouth)
-plasty
surgical repair
-tome
instrument to cut
-rrhaphy
suture
-tomy
incision
-emesis
vomiting
-gram
record, writing
-graphy
process of recording
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
-oid
resembling
-megaly
enlargement
-oma
tumor
-pepsia
digestion
-phagia
swallowing
-spasm
involuntary contraction, twitching
-tripsy
crushing
-prandial
meal
Barium
Ba
barium enema; below the elbow
BE
Calcium
Ca
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
EGD
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
ERCP
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
ESWL
fasting blood sugar
FBS
family history
FH
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GERD
gastrointestinal
GI
glucose tolerance test
GTT
hepatitis A virus
HAV
hepatitis B virus
HBV
inflammatory bowel disease
IBD
irritable bowel syndrome
IBD
intravenous cholangiogram; intravenous cholangiography
IVC
lower esophageal sphincter
LES
magnetic resonance imaging
MRI
operating room
OR
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
RGB
right upper quadrant
RUQ
upper gastrointestinal
UGI
upper gastrointestinal series
UGIS
ultrasound
US
ascites
abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
borborygymus
gurgling or rumbling sound heard over the large intestine that is caused by gas moving through the intestines
cirrhosis
chronic liver disease characterized by destruction of liver cells that eventually leads to ineffective liver function and jaundice
diverticular disease
condition in which bulging pouches in the gastrointestinal tract push the mucosal lining throght the surrounding muscle
dysentery
inflammation of the intestine, especially of the colon, which may be caused by chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites
fistula
abnormal passage from one organ to another, or from a hollow organ to the surface
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to malfunction of th lower esophageal sphincter
hematochezia
passage of stools containing bright red blood
hemorrhoid
mass of enlarged, twisted varicose veins in the mucous membrane inside (internal) or just outside (external) or just outside (external) the rectum; also know as piles
hernia
protrusion or projection of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
ulceration of the colon mucosa
Crohn disease
chronic IBD that usually affects the ileum but may affect any portion of the intestinal tract
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
condition characterized by gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, including constipation, diarrhea, gas, and bloating, all in the absence of organic pathology
jaundice
yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes caused by excessive levels of bilibrium in the blood
obesity
condition in which a person accumulates an amount of fat that exeeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
morbid obesity
more severe obesity in which a person has a body mass index of 40 percent or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
polyp
small, tumorlike, benign growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface
colonic polyposis
condition in which polyps project from the mucous membrane of the colon
polyposis
condition in which polyps develop in the intestinal tract
ulcer
open sore or lesion of the skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue
volvulus
twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction
barium enema
radiographic examination of the rectum and colon after admistrationof barium sulfate into the rectum
barium swallow
radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine after oral adminstration of barium sulfate
computed tomography (CT)
radiographic technique that uses a narrow beam of w-rays that rotates in a full arc around the patient to acquire multiple views of the body that a computer interprets to produce cross-sectional images of that body part
endoscopy
visual examination of a cavity or canal using a specialized light instrument called an endoscope
upper GI
endoscopty of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
lower GI
endoscopy of colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum and anal canal
magnetic reasonance imaging (MRI)
radiographic technique that uses electromagnetic energy to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images of the body
stool guaiac
test performed on feces using the reagent gum guaiac to detect presence of blood in feces that is not apparent on visual inspection
ultrasonography (US)
imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that bounce off body tissues and are recorded to produce an image of an internal organ or tissue
bariatric surgery
group of procedures that treat morbid obesity
vertical banded gastroplasty
bariatric surgery in which the upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to reduce it to a small pouch and a band is inserted that restricts and delays food from leaving the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness
lithotripsy
procedure for eliminating a stone within the gallbladder or urinary system by crushing the stone surgically or using a noninvasive method, such as ultrasonic shock waves, to shatter it
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)
use of shock waves a noninvasive method to destroy stones in the gallbladder and biliary ducts
nasogastric intubation
insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach
Roux-en Y gastric bypass
bariatric surgery in which the stomach is first stapled to decrease it to a small pouch and then the jejunum is shortened and connected to the small stomach pouch, causing the base of the duodenum leading from the nonfucioning portion of the stomach to form a Y configuration, which decreased the pathway of food through the intestine, thus reducing absorption of calories and fats
Gastrointestinal System (GI)
Digestive System
-Provides body with essential water, nutrients, & minerals.
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-Contributes digestive enzymes to break down food.
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-Prepares food for absorbtion
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-Eliminates Waste
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Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
Digestive Tube
Accessory Organs Included in GI
liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
Food's Journey
Mouth > Pharynx(throat) > Esophagus > Stomach > Small Intestines > Large Intestines > Rectum > Anus
Digestive Process
food is broken down into smaller & smaller pieces > mixed with digestive enzymes & broken down to nutrient molecules > which are then absorbed by the blood stream.
Enzyme
a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living organism
Mechanical Digestion
breaks down food into smaller parts (physical change only) but still same molecule
EX: Chewing
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Chemical Digestion
Chemical reactions by digestive enzymes, break down food into totally different molecules, requires enzymes.
EX: starches broken down into sugar
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Food
Carbohydrates (starches & sugar) proteins & fats. Digestion begins in the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Mouth
(oral or buccal cavitiy)
Receptable for food
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Bucca
Cheeks
Salivary Glands (3 Pairs)
Secret saliva which contains digestive enzymes; amylase in saliva begins chemical digestion of carbs
amyl
starch
-ase
enzyme
Teeth
mechanically break down food
mastication
mechanically breaking down of food
Enamel
white covering of teeth
Dentin
main structure of teeth, made of a bone-like substance
Pulp
inner most part of teeth that contains nerves and blood vessels
Gingiva
Gums. Teeth are embedded in gums
Tongue
mechanical manipulation of foods, aids in swallowing (deglutition), speech production, and taste.
Gustation
TASTE. Taste receptors are in rough projections called papillae. Sweet, sour, salty, bitter
Hard & Soft Palate
Form roof of mouth; hard palate (anterior); soft palate (posterior)
Bolus
round mass of food ready for swallowing prepared by upper GI tract
Pharynx (throat)
passageway to the respiratory & GI tract which is divided into 2 parts: esophagus & trachea
Uvula
soft, fleshy, V-shaped structure connected to the soft palate
Esophagus (swallowing tube)
leads to stomach
Trachea (windpipe)
leads into lungs
Epiglottis
small flap of cartilage that cover the trachea during swallowing
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
junction of esophagus & stomach, circular muscle fibers constrict once food has passed & prevents back flow of stomach content
Stomach
Sac-like structure in the LUQ, (food resevoir), mechanical & chemical digestion occurs here, and it consists of 3 parts: Body, Fundus, & Pylorus
Body
Storage area and large central portion of the stomach
Fundus
Storage area and upper portion of the stomach
Pylorus
funnel-shaped terminal portion of the stomach, and main area for chemical digestion
Interior of Stomach
lined with mucous membranes (mucosa), has longitudinal folds called rugae, and contains the digestive glands that produce HCL (Hydrochloric acid) & pepsin
Pepsin
enzyme secreted along with acid in the stomach to begin protein digestion
In the Interior of the Stomach
Bolus becomes semiliquid form called chyme
Pyloric Sphincter
circular muscular area that controls speed & movement of chyme into the small intestine (duodenum) so chyme slowly leaves stomach in squirts
Bilirubin
orange-colored or yellowish pigment in bile
Exocrine
denotes a gland that secretes its products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ, tissue, or into a vessel
Sphincter
circular band of muscle fibers that constrict a passage or closes a natural opening of the body
Small Intestine
Coiled 20 foot long tube from pyloric sphincter to large intestine, most absorbent of nutrients occur here through the villi, and consists of 3 parts: Duodenum, jejunum, & ileum.
Peristalsis
coordinated, rhythmic, muscle contractions, propels food along GI tract
Villi
microscopic finger-like projections in small intestines inner lining that releases more digestive enzymes, absorbs nutrients in chyme, and then those nutrients enter blood stream & lymphatics
Duodenum
Upper section of small intestine, 10 inches long, C-shaped; ducts from the liver, gall bladder, & pancreas all unite to secrete their digestive juices here to help with digestion.
Jejunum
8 foot, second part of small intestine with the most nutrient absorption occurring here
Ileum
12 foot, last part of small intestine which contains a valve to prevent back flow of contents from large intestine
Ileocecal Valve
a sphincter muscle joins ileum to the large intestines cecum
Large Intestine
4 major region: Cecum, Colon, Rectum, & anus. 5 feet long and starts at the Ileum of small intestine & ends at the anus. No digestion here, just absorption of H2O & minerals, & it secretes mucus & eliminates undigested material; bacterial action here helps form Vitamin K from green leafy veggies
Feces
name for waste in the intestine (also called stool)
Defecation
elimination of feces from GI tract through the rectum
Cecum
First part of large intestine, 2 or 3 inch pouch-like structure below ileocecal opening
Appendix
worm-like projection down from the cecum which contais lymphatic tissue; function unknown, however it can become infected and inflamed
Colon
4 parts of Colon: ascending, transverse, descending, & sigmoid (S-shaped)
ascending colon
extends from the cecum to the lower border of liver & turns abruptly to form hepatic flexure.
transverse colon
curving beneath the lower end of the spleen forming the splenic flexure
descending colon
continues until it forms the sigmoid colon & rectum
Rectum
last part of the large intestine that serves as the temporary storage area for feces
Anus
opening to the outside; surrounded by 2 areas of muscle, the internal & external sphincter, which control the release of feces
LIver
located (RUGQ) of abdomen beneath the diaphragm & is the largest glandular organ in the body & has many functions other than digestion
Pancreas
elongated, flattened organ shaped like a comma which lies near stomach; its head is C-shaped portion of duodenum & has both endocrine & exocrine functions
Endocrine function
secretes the hormones insulin & glucagen into bloodstream & keeps blood glucose levels normal
Exocrine functions
produces pancreatic juice that breaks down all categories of food & contains digestive enzymes & bicarbonate ions (alkaline pH) pass into duodenum from pancreatic duct
pancreatic proteases
helps break down proteins, main one is named trypsin
pancreatic amylase
helps break down carbohydrates
pancreatic lipase
helps break down fat
Bicarbonate Ions
base that neutralizes stomach acid
Gall Bladder
sac-like structure on inferior surface of liver that serves as storage area for bile (which is produced by the liver) releases bile thru common bile duct into duodenum, bile is important for fat digestion
Flow of Bile
Bile leaves the liver through right & left hepatic ducts > fuse to form common hepatic duct which unites with cystic duct > to form the common bile duct
Common S/S of Disgestive Disorder
nausea, vomiting, GI bleeding, abdominal pain, change in bowel habits, decreased appetite & weight loss
Gastroenterology
branch of medicine concerned with digestive diseases
Gastroenterologist
physician specializing in digestive disorders
Esophagitis
inflammation of the esophageal mucosa
Gastritis
inflammation of gastric mucosa
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERDz)
"heartburn". Occurs when lower esophageal sphincter doesn't close completely, allows gastric juices to slpash up into esophagus & esophagus lining is damaged as a result
Ulcer
Open sore in the mucous membrane resulting from localized tissue breakdown due to damage by acids & enzymes
Esophageal Ulcer
may occur from GERDz
Peptic Ulcer
most common type of ulcer in GI tract
Gastric Ulcer
develops in stomach
Duodenal Ulcer
develops in the duodenum
Cause of Ulcers
breakdown of mucosal barrier, excessive HCL or pepsin secretion, Helicobacter pylori bacteria
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBDz)
have signs of inflammation, diarrhea containing blood & pus, fever
Ulcerative Colitis
chronic inflammatory disease of large intestine & rectum, inflammatory lesion is ulcers just on the lining, ulcers usually continue along length of intestines with no "skip areas"
Functional Bowel Disease (Irritable Bowel Syndrom (IBS))
"spastic colon". abdominal pain with alternating diarrhea & constipation, NO INFLAMMATION (no bleeding, pus, fever) usually associated with emotional disorder
Intestinal Obstruction
partial or complete blockage that prevents forward flow of digestive products
Mechanical Obstruction
something obstructs or clogs passage of substances through bowel
EX: tumors, adhesion, hernias, etc.
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Functional Obstruction
No smooth muscle activity because of muscle or nerve problem
EX: spinal cord injury, post abdominal surgery
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Hemorrhoids
enlarged veins in the mucous membranes of the anal canal
Crohn's Disease
also called regional enteritis or regional ileitis, chronic inflammatory disease of small intestine (mainly ileum), inflammatory lesion is granuloma, deep into walls, gives a "cobblestone" appearance, has "skip areas"
Diverticular
disease of colon
Deverticula
small blister-like pockets which develop in the inner lining of the colon
Diverticulosis
having diverticula caused by low fiber diet with small hard stools
Diverticulitis
inflammation of diverticula caused by obstruction of opening in the diverticula by stool
Appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix caused by obstruction in opening of appendix can be caused by fecalith
Hernia
protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained
Diaphragmatic Hernia
congenital disorder, baby born with intestine in thorax
Hiatal Hernia
lower part of the esophagus & top of the stomach slide through an opening in the diaphragm in to thorax
Hiatus
break or opening
Umbilical Hernia
protrusion of part of intestine at navel, usually small intestine
Inguinal Hernia
develops in groin, loop of small bowels protrude thru inguinal canal
Strangulated Hernia
blood supply to hernia is cut off and gangrene (necrosis) develops, ususally occurs in either inguinal or umbilical hernia
Liver & Gall Bladder Disorders
major sign is yellowing of skin & mucous membrane, yellowing of white of eye, due to elevation of blood bilirubin
jaundice
yellowing of skin & mucous membranes
Icterus
yellowing of white of eye
Cirrhosis
scarring & dysfunction of liver caused by chronic liver disease caused by alcohol abuse & chronic hepatitis
Hepatitis
inflammation of liver caused by infection in liver or elsewhere in the body, chemical (alcohol) or drug toxicity, gall bladder or pancreatic disorder, autoimmune, or idiopathic
Viral Hepatitis
inflammation caused by virus
Hepatitis A
(infectious hepatitis) fecal, oral transmission usually contaminated food, H2O, milk, travelers to underdeveloped countries at risk
Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis)
parenteral (body fluids) transmission, contact with infected blood & sexual contact
Hepatitis C
Blood transfusions, IV drug use, chronic disease.
Cholecystitis
Gall bladder disease, inflammation of the gall bladder
Cholelithiasis
Gall bladder disease, gall stones in gall bladder or common bile duct classic patient "4 F's"
Female, forty, fat, & fertile
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Gastointestinal Cancer
Most are adenocarcinomas
Adenocarcinomas
tumor/gland/cancer
Gastric Adenocarcinoma
stomach cancer that develops from the epithelial or mucosal lining, mainly gladnular part, persistent indigestion is one of the warning signs
Colorectal Cancer
arises from the epithelial lining of the large intestine, especially from certain types of polyps (small growth) most common type of adenocarcinoma
S/S of GI Cancer
depends on the location of the cancer. Blood in stool, change in bowel habits, rectal or abdominal pain, weight loss
Papilla
nipple of tissue
Peritoneum
the serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity & covers most of the organs within the cavity
bil/i
bile
stoma, or/o, stomat/o
mouth
col/o, colon/o, coll/i
colon
sial/o or saliv/o
saliva or salivary gland
asymptomatic
without symptoms
sub-
under, below
peri-
around
dia-
through, across
-rrhea
discharge, flow
-prandial
meal
-phagia
swallowing, eating
-algia
pain
-pepsia
digestion
-orexia
appetite
-megaly
enlargement
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
-emesis
vomit
choledoch/o
bile duct
cholecyst/o
gall bladder
chol/e
bile, gall
cholangi/o
bile vessel
pancreat/o
pancreas
hepat/o
liver
an/o
anus
proct/o
anus, rectum
rect/o
rectum
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
append/o or appendic/o
appendix
ile/o
ileum (third part of small intestine)
jejun/o
jejunum (second part of small intestine)
enter/o
intestine (usually small intestine)
duoden/o
duodenum (first part of small intestine)
pylor/o
pylorus
gastr/o
stomach
pharyng/o
pharynx (throat)
esophag/o
esophagus
gingiv/o
gum
dent/o or odont/o
teeth
cheil/o or labi/o
lip
bucc/o
cheek
gloss/o or lingu/o
tongue
cyst/o
bladder or fluid-filled sac
anorexia
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
ascites
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
borborygmus
rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance & caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestines
cachexia
physical wasiting that includes loss of weight & muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS & cancer
cholelithiasis
presence of formation of gallstones in the gall bladder or common bile duct
colic
spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
deglutition
act of swallowing
dysentery
inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting H2O or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites which results in bloody diarrhea
dyspepsia
epigastric discomfort felt after eating; also called indigestion
dysphagia
inability of difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia
eructation
producing gas from the stomach, usually with characteristic sound, also called belching
fecalith
fecal concentration
flatus
gas in the GI tract expelling air from a body orifice, especially the anus
halitosis
offensive, or bad breath
hematemesis
vomiting blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
symptom complex marked by abdominal pain & altered bowel function
malabsorption syndrome
symptom complex of small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph
melena
passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
obesity
excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal & physical standards, usually an increase of 20% or more above ideal body weight
morbid obesity
body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
obstipation
sever constipation; may be caused by an intestinal obstruction
oral leukoplakia
formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheeks caused primarily by irritation.
pyloric stenosis
stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
regurgitation
backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
steatorrhea
passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest & absorb it
endoscopy
visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope
Upper GI endoscopy
endoscopy of the esophagus (esophagoscopy) stomach (gastroscopy) & duodenum (duodenoscopy)
Lower GI endoscopy
endoscopy of the colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon ( sigmoidoscopy), & rectum & anal canal (proctoscopy)
hepatitis panel
panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antogens
liver function tests (LFTs)
group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, function & conditions often associated with the biliary tract
serum bilirubin
measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
stool culture
test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces
stool guaiac
applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect presence of occult (hidden) blood in the feces; also called hemoccult
barium enema (BE)
radiographic examination of the rectum & colon following enema administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium) into the rectum; also called lower GI series
barium swallow
radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, & small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium); also called esophagram & upper GI series
cholecystography
radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
Computed Tomography (CT)
imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned & measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles.
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
endoscopic procedure that provide radiographic visualization of the bile & pancreatic ducts to identify partial or total obstructions, as well as stones, cysts, & tumors
percutaneous transhepatic cholaniography (PTCP)
radiographic examination of bile duct structures
sialography
radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts
ultrasonography (US)
test that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to analyse the reflected echos from anatomical structures & convert them to an image on a video monitor
abdominal Ultrasonography
ultrasound visualization of the abdominal aorta, liver, gall bladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, & blader
Biopsy (Bx)
representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
nasogastric intubation
procedure that involves insertion of anasogastric tube thru the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, food, or gastric secretions; to instill medications, food, fluid; to obtain specimen for laboratory analysis
anastomosis
surgical joining of 2 ducts, vessels, or bowel segements to allow flow from one to another
ileorectal (anastomosis)
surgical connection of the ileum & rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colititis
intestinal (anastomosis)
surgical connection of 2 portions of the intestines; also called enteroenterostomy
bariatric surgery
Group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from sever accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue & the resultant health problems
vertical banded gastroplasty
upper stomach near the esophagus is staples vertically to reduce it to a small pouch. A band is then inserted that restricts food consumption & delays its passage from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB)
stomach is first stapled to decrease it to a small pouch. The jejunum is shortened & connected to the small stomach pouch, causing the base of the duodenum leading from the nonfunctioning portion of the stomach to form a Y configuration. This decreases the pathway of food through intestines reduces absorption of calories and fats.
colostomy
creation of an opening of a portion of the colon thru the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
lithotriopsy
procedure for crushing a stone & eliminating its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves
extracorporeal shockwave
use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to break up stones in the gall bladder or biliary ducts
polypectomy
excision of a polyp
pyloromyotomy
incision of the longitudinal & circular muscles of the pylorus; used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
antacids
counteract or neutralize acidity, usually in the stomach
antidiarrheals
control loose stools & relieve diarrhea by absorbing excess H2O in the bowel or slowing peristalsis in the intestinal tract
antiemetics
control nausea & vomiting by blocking nerve impulses to the vomiting center of the brain
antispasmodics
decrease gastrointestinal spasms by slowing peristalsis & motility thru-out the GI tract
laxatives
Treat constipation by increasing peristalsis activity in large intestine or increasing H2O & electrolyte secretion into the bowel to induce defecation
BM
Bowel Movement
EGD
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
GB
gall bladder
GERDz
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
GI
Gastrointestinal
HAV
Hepatitis A Virus
HBV
Hepatitis B Virus
HCV
Hepatitis C Virus
IBS
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
LFT
Liver Function Test
PE
physical examination; pulmonary embolism
PMH
past medical history
PUD
peptic ulcer disease
R/O
rule out
HCL
hydrochloric acid
HCO3
bicarbonate ion base
Vital Function of the Liver
1) Produce bile to emulsify & absorb fat
2) Regulates blood levels of nutrients
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3) Stores vitamins such as B12, A, D, E, K
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4) Detoxifies harmful compounds
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5) Maintains normal glucose level in blood
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6) Destroys old erythrocytes & releases bilirubin
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7) Produces most blood proteins
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