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nerve fiber that carries impulses toward the cell body


single nerve fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body

Myelin sheath

increases the rate of impulses transmission, insulates, and maintains the axon


sensory nerves carrying messages to the brain and spinal cord


motor nerves carrying messages from the brain to the muscles and glands


space between dendrites and axons


carries both sensory and motor messages

Central Nervous System

consist of brain and spinal cord


maintains and is responsible for reasoning, thought, memory, speaking sensation, sight, hearing, and voluntary body movement


responsible for coordination of muscles, balance and posture, and muscle tone


located between the cerebrum and midbrain


acts as a relay center and directs sensory impulses to the cerebrum


regulates and controls the ANS and involved with emotions such as anger, fear, pleasure, pain and affection, temperature, appetite, water balance, and vasoconstriction and vasodilation


located below the cerebrum at the top of the brain stem; responsible for conducting impulses between brain parts and for certain eye and auditory reflexes


located below the midbrain in the brain stem; responsible for conducting messages to other parts of the brain and reflex actions including masticating, tasting, and production of saliva

Medulla Oblongata

lowest part of the brain stem and connects w/ the spinal cord; responsible for regulating the heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing and blood

Spinal Cord

a column of nervous tissue and extending from the medulla oblongata to the first or second lumbar vertebrae; responsible for nerve conduction

Dura Mater

thick, outer layer


middle delicate weblike layer

Pia Meter

intermost layer, closed attached to the brain and spinal cord and contains blood vessels that nourish the nerve tissue


four hollow spaces in the brain that are connected w/ each other and w/ the space under the arachnoid membrane

Cerebrospinal fluid

circulates continually between the ventricles and through the subarachnoid space; acts as a shock absorber to protect the brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System

consists of the somatic and autonomic nervous system

Autonomic Nervous System

helps maintain a balance in the involuntary functions of the body, allows the body to react in times of emergency


responds in time of emergency and prepares the body to act by increasing heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and slowing activity in the digestive tract


after the emergency to counteract the action by slowing heart rate, decreasing respiration, lowering blood pressure, and increasing activity in the digestive tract

Somatic Nervous System

consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and their branches and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and their branches


specializes with the nerves

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