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28 terms

Nervous System

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Dendrite
nerve fiber that carries impulses toward the cell body
Axon
single nerve fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body
Myelin sheath
increases the rate of impulses transmission, insulates, and maintains the axon
Afferent
sensory nerves carrying messages to the brain and spinal cord
Efferent
motor nerves carrying messages from the brain to the muscles and glands
Synapses
space between dendrites and axons
Associative
carries both sensory and motor messages
Central Nervous System
consist of brain and spinal cord
Cerebrum
maintains and is responsible for reasoning, thought, memory, speaking sensation, sight, hearing, and voluntary body movement
Cerebellum
responsible for coordination of muscles, balance and posture, and muscle tone
Diencephalon
located between the cerebrum and midbrain
Thalamus
acts as a relay center and directs sensory impulses to the cerebrum
Hypothalamus
regulates and controls the ANS and involved with emotions such as anger, fear, pleasure, pain and affection, temperature, appetite, water balance, and vasoconstriction and vasodilation
Midbrain
located below the cerebrum at the top of the brain stem; responsible for conducting impulses between brain parts and for certain eye and auditory reflexes
Pons
located below the midbrain in the brain stem; responsible for conducting messages to other parts of the brain and reflex actions including masticating, tasting, and production of saliva
Medulla Oblongata
lowest part of the brain stem and connects w/ the spinal cord; responsible for regulating the heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing and blood
Spinal Cord
a column of nervous tissue and extending from the medulla oblongata to the first or second lumbar vertebrae; responsible for nerve conduction
Dura Mater
thick, outer layer
Arachnoid
middle delicate weblike layer
Pia Meter
intermost layer, closed attached to the brain and spinal cord and contains blood vessels that nourish the nerve tissue
Ventricles
four hollow spaces in the brain that are connected w/ each other and w/ the space under the arachnoid membrane
Cerebrospinal fluid
circulates continually between the ventricles and through the subarachnoid space; acts as a shock absorber to protect the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
consists of the somatic and autonomic nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
helps maintain a balance in the involuntary functions of the body, allows the body to react in times of emergency
Sympathetic
responds in time of emergency and prepares the body to act by increasing heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and slowing activity in the digestive tract
Parasympathetic
after the emergency to counteract the action by slowing heart rate, decreasing respiration, lowering blood pressure, and increasing activity in the digestive tract
Somatic Nervous System
consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and their branches and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and their branches
Neurologist
specializes with the nerves