something that someone often does, or something that often happens
1) in a way that relates to the home, house, or family 2) in a way that relates to a person's own country
impose reparations on
to make a defeated nation after a war pay for damages or expenses it caused to another nation
a concept by which a politician or political party loses widespread support and confidence from the voting public by proposing actions that are seen as unfavourable or that might threaten the status quo
1) to refuse to continue working because of an argument with an employer about working conditions, pay levels, or job losses 2) to cause a person or place to suffer severely from the effects of something very unpleasant that happens suddenly 3) to hit or attack someone or something forcefully or violently 4) to remove something officially from a document
to lower the prices
to reduce payment in return for work or services
a state of balance
the process by which the monetary authority of a country, like the central bank or currency board, controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency
a summary, paraphrase or quotation which is from a source text
a citation which uses the exact words of the original source
a piece of text which expresses similar ideas to another text of similar lenght, but using different language
a short text which expresses the main arguments of a longer text
information in a text showing the source of any citations; in-text references consist of the authors' name and the date of the source, or a number, which are linked to the full reference details in the bibliography or reference list
where the author or source of a sitation is concidered significant, the author's name is given first, followed by the content
where the content is more important than the individual author(s), then the reference can be shown in brackets at the end
from the same source as the one which was last mentioned
they suggest focusing
они предлагают фокусироваться на...
his later work confirmed...
его более поздняя работа подтвердила ...
small in numbers or amount, often spread over a large area
having parts that are close together so that it is difficult to go or see through
the quality of being sophisticated the process or result of becoming cultured, knowledgeable, or disillusioned
1. having a good understanding of the way people behave and/or a good knowledge of culture and fashion 2. intelligent or made in a complicated way and therefore able to do complicated tasks
to draw parallel between
make a comparison between, make an analogy between
an area of water where fish are caught so they can be sold
adverse effect of
having a negative or harmful effect on something
the natural environment in which an animal or plant usually lives
to keep and protect something from damage, change, or waste
1. in danger of being harmed, lost, unsuccessful, etc 2. animals or plants that may soon not exist because there are very few now alive
the number and types of plants and animals that exist in a particular area or in the world generally, or the problem of protecting this
to follow a person or animal by looking for proof that they have been somewhere, or by using electronic equipment to record the progress or development of something over a period
1. A foreseeable event or situation is one that can be known about or guessed before it happens 2. as far into the future as you can imagine or plan for
present a further argument for this approach
предоставить еще один аргумент в пользу данного подхода
They were found/shown to have...
было найдено/показано, что они имеют...
объяснить / описать / проиллюстрировать, как ...
to give reasons to support or oppose an idea, action, etc
warn of ...
to tell someone that something bad may happen in the future, so that they can prevent it
emphasize/highlight/stress the importance of...
подчеркнуть / выделить / отметить важность ...
et al. (Latin, short for "et alia")
softens suggestions and criticisms, raises problems
it might be easier to....than...
может быть легче ... чем ...
we could either....or....
мы можем или ... или ...
the amount by which the money that you spend is more than the money that you receive
the rate at which prices increase, or a continuing increase in prices
allowing things to happen and not trying to control them
a process in which a system or situation returns to the way it was before something bad happened
a state of confusion without any order strong sudden movements within air or water
to suddenly cause a strong reaction
a very thin book with a paper cover that gives information about something
to try to make or change an agreement by discussion
the process of trying to make or change an agreement by discussion
an agreement to accept something which is not exactly what you want
bog down (someone/something) (v)
to prevent someone or something from moving on or progressing
the total amount of money you accumulate throughout your entire
to increase in amount over a period of time, or to make something increase over a period of time (накапливать)
accumulation(n) (accumulation of pension)
when amount of something is increasing over a period of time
entitlement (welfare entitlement)
The fact of having a right to something (право)
Usually,or based on an average (в среднем)
something known by most people (общеизвестный факт)
closely compacted in substance; hard to understand because of its complexity of ideas (густой,плотный)
the degree of compactness of a substance; the quantity of people or things in a given area or space
pad sth out (v)
lengthen a speech or piece of writing with unnecessary material (раздувать,увеличивать)
back sth up (v)
to prove that something is true; to make an extra copy of computer information
good at persuading someone to do or believe something through reasoning or the use of temptation
submit (v) (submit an essay)
to send a document, plan, etc to someone so that they can consider it (подавать документы); to accept that someone has control over you and do what they tell you to do
done on purpose; deliberate(намеренный)
happening by chance, unintentionally, or unexpectedly (случайный)
The author argues/explains/states that...
This approach is shown to have...
Этот подход продемонстрирован, чтобы...
They use a definition of...
Они используют определение...
one explanation of... is...
одно объяснение этого... это...
propose a model
place increasing emphasis on
уделять больше внимания
develop a modern theory of
развить современную теорию
make detailed observations of
провести детальное исследование
provide a general explanation of
дать общее объяснение
give description of
offer the following definition of
предложить следующее объяснение
the research should focus on assessing the effectiveness of
исследование должно быть сосредоточено на оценке эффективности
Good leaders motivate employees to perform at their best via supportive practices.
Хорошие лидеры мотивируют своих сотрудников максимально эффективно выполнять свою работу при помощи вспомогательных практик.
Poor hygiene can cause such diseases to spread rapidly.
Плохая гигиена может привести к быстрому распространению таких болезней.
the regulations encourage companies to reduce
регламент стимулирует компании снижать
distribution ( income distribution)
an act or instance of distributing; распределение (распределение доходов)
an inclination, bent, or predisposition to something; тенденция
the general course or prevailing tendency; drift; тренд
the proportion of births to the total population in a place in a given time, usually expressed as a quantity per 1000 of population; рождаемость
the probable number of years remaining in the life of an individual or class of persons determined statistically, affected by such factors as heredity, physical condition, nutrition, and occupation; продолжительность жизни
the monetary payment received for goods or services, or from other sources, as rents or investments; доход домашнего хозяйства
Median income divides the income distribution range in half, one with residents having incomes above the median, and the other with residents having incomes below the median. средний доход
income per capita, counted by dividing the overall income of the region in the specified time by its total population доход на душу населения
cover part of the same area of interest, responsibility, etc.
threshold-lowest border; income threshold-lowest wage (как я понял,не факт что правильно)
exclude - deny (someone) access to a place, group, or privilege OR remove from consideration
show or prove to be right or reasonable
the state of being prosperous(successful in material terms; flourishing financially)
following as a result or effect
stimulate or give rise to (a reaction or emotion, typically a strong or unwelcome one) in someone
facilitate - make (an action or process) easy or easier facility - a place, amenity, or piece of equipment provided for a particular purpose
shift away from doing smth
avoid doing smth, stop doing smth
difference in smth
this technique relies on dividing sth into...
Этот метод основан на разделении...
relate or connect to one other
I think it would be better to focus on...
Я думаю, было бы лучше сосредоточиться на...
exclude from participating in sth
to expel, shut or keep out; prevent the entrance of
It is important we don't get bogged in technical details
Важно, чтобы мы не увязли в технических деталях
Remember, we need to present this in a really clear way
Помни,что мы должны представить это в понятной форме
I would go for...
Я бы выбрал...
aren't we meant to be doing...?
Разве нам не предназначено делать...?
maximizing language, emphasizes important points, makes stronger suggestions
максимизирующий язык, подчеркивает важные моменты, усиляет предложения
perhaps we should stick with...
возможно, мы должны придерживаться
Don't you think that a subject like that might be a bit difficult to explain?
Не думаете ли вы, что такую тему, как эта, немного трудно объяснить?
the bird that flies to the south when it gets colder( migrates)
1) Work jointly on an activity or project 2) Cooperate traitorously with an enemy
noun for collaborate
1) An animal that naturally preys on others 2) A person who ruthlessly exploits others 3) A company that tries to take over another
1 )A place where bees live ( The bees in a hive) 2) A place in which people are busily occupied
1)A broad piece of metal or another suitable material, held by straps or a handle attached on one side, used as a protection against blows or missiles. 2) A person or thing providing protection
1) Protect from a danger, risk, or unpleasant experience
1) A family of birds or other young animals produced at one hatching or birth 2) A large family of children(informal)
A period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters
A sudden sharp reduction in the availability of money or credit from banks and other lenders
Coming after something in time; following
long swing(s) in ecomomic activity
durable or notable fluctuations in economy
(of a person or action) creating or controlling a situation rather than just responding to it after it has happened
Careful, trying to avoid danger
The time you stop working and start getting pension
Only working person in family
when wife and husband have work both but only one cares about career
the person who earns the money in a family
A labour-saving device or method is one that saves a lot of effort and time.
to give some time, money, space, etc to be used for a particular purpose
mostly or mainly
taking something important or necessary away from someone or something