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Special Senses Test Review
Terms in this set (12)
List the six extrinsic eye muscles and their action.
Lateral rectus - right side
Medial rectus - middle
Inferior oblique - upward angle
Super oblique - downward angle
Inferior rectus - down
Superior rectus - up
Describe two eye disorders/diseases.
Glaucoma - eye disease that can damage your optic nerve
Amblyopia - nerve pathways between the brain and an eye aren't properly stimulated, the brain favors the other eye
List some common causes of blindness.
1. People with eye diseases
2. People with diabetes
3. People with a stroke
4. People who work with or near sharp objects or toxic chemicals
Describe myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. For the first two, include the lens needed to correct each.
Myopia - near-sighted; concave
Hyperopia - far-sighted ; convex
Astigmatism - mis-shaped corrective lens is ground differently in different area
List the types of receptors in the retina and describe each. Why are there only three color receptors?
Cones - red, blue, green
Photoreceptors - black, white, gray
Red, blue, and green are primary colors of light; make all colors of light from these
What is the advantage of binocular vision?
Advantage of a much greater depth perception, or the ability to distinguish the distance of an object
Trace a sound wave through the human ear.
1. Sound waves reach pinna
2. Travels down auditory canal
3. Vibrates eardrum
4. Vibrates ossides
5. Vibrates fluid in cochlea
6. Stereocilia move, stimulating receptors
7. Signal sent to auditory cortex via auditory nerve
Why are ear infections more common in children?
Their eustachian tubes are more horizontal; with growth, the eustachian tube is more vertical.
How does smell (olfaction) work?
1. Olfactory hairs pick up airborne chemicals
2. Olfactory cells that are stimulated send impulse to olfactory bulb to olfactory cortex
Mitral cells can reduce or stop signals
How does taste (gustation) work? Include regions on tongue and which chemicals cause each taste.
Gustation detects dissolved chemicals
Bitter - alkaloids
Sour - acids
Sweet - sugar amino acids
Salty - metals
Describe how balance/equilibrium is maintained.
Otoliths roll back and forth in the semicircular canals
Be able to label by matching the following pictures:
Areas of taste
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