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Hesi Anatomy and Physiology
Terms in this set (299)
body's maintenance of a stable environment
molecule or cell that provides information about the environment
control center (and set point)
indicates correct value (e.g. body temp)
What elicits a response that alters conditions within the body's internal environment. (e.g. muscles and glands)
When receptors measure deviations from the set point, effectors are activated and conditions are returned toward the set point and effectors gradually shut off. This movement toward homeostasis and balance is called .........
Homeostatic mechanisms that function when changes byeffectors move the body away from normal conditions, causing more changes, is called...... (examples are blood clotting and labor contractions)
organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
Levels of organization
Cell components that perform a specific function
Basic unit of structure and function
Groups of cells organized into layers or masses that have specific functions
Structures that perform a specialized function (comprised of tissues)
Groups of organs that function together closely
Comprised of an interacting organ system
above, or closer to the head
below, or closer to the feet
Toward the front
Toward the back
Toward the midline
Away from the midline (closer to the sides)
Median (saggital) plane
Imaginary vertical line dividing the body into right and left portions
Imaginary vertical line dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions
Imaginary horizontal line dividing the body into superior and inferior
Dorsal cavities (near the back)
Cranial and spinal cavity
Cavity that contains the brain
Spinal cavity (vertebral)
Cavity that contains the spinal cord and vertebrae
orbits, nasal, oral, thoracic, mediastinum, pericardial, pleural, and abdominopelvic (peritoneal)
Ventral cavities (near the front of the body)
Cavity that contains the eyes and associated skeletal muscles and nerves
Cavity that is divided into right and left portions by the nasal septum; air-filled sphenoid and frontal sinuses
Cavity that contains the teeth and tongue
Cavity that contains the lungs (chest cavity)
Space between the lungs that contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus
Potential space between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium
middle ear cavities
Cavity containing the incus, malleus, stapes
Pleural cavities (lungs)
Cavities (right and left) that are the potential space between the parietal and visceral pleural membranes
Cavity that extends from the diaphragm to the floor of the pelvis; includes stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, small and large intestines, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs
Cavity that is the potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneal membranes
Pleural membranes (parietal is the outside layer that lines the cavity, visceral is the inside layer, covering the lung)
Body cavity membrane: which is a serous membrane that lines the lungs
Pericardial (parietal is the outside layer which lines the mediastinum, visceral is the inside layer, covering the heart)
Body cavity membrane: which serous membrane lines the heart?
Peritoneal membranes (parietal is the outside layer which lines the cavity, visceral is the inside layer, lining the organs)
Body cavity membrane: Which serous membrane lines the abdominopelvic cavity?
epithelial, connective, nerve, and muscle tissue
Four major tissue types
Which type of tissue is found throughout the body and covers the body, lines organs, found in the inner lining of body cavities and hollow organs?
Which type of tissue always has an apical (free) surface exposed to an open space (inside or outside)?
What nonliving membrane anchors epithelium to underlying connective tissue?
T/F Epithelial cells lack blood vessels, so they are supplied by underlying connective tissues
protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion
Functions of epithelial tissue
Which type of epithelial tissue is a single layer of thin, flattened cells that is thin and delicate, easily damaged?
diffusion and filtration
Simple squamos tissue is common at sites where _ and _ occur, since substances pass through easily.
Alveoli, walls of capillaries, inside the blood and lymph vessels, and membrane coverings in the cavities is where you can find this type of epithelial tissue.
Which type of epithelial tissue is a single layer of cube-shaped cells?
Which type of epithelial tissue lines follicles of thyroid gland, covers ovaries, lines kidney tubules, and ducts of glands (salivary glands, pancreas, and liver)?
tubular secretion, tubular reabsorption, and secretes glandular products
Simple cuboidal cells function in _ and _ and _
Which type of epithelial tissue is either ciliated or nonciliated single layer of elongated cells, which form a good protective layer?
portions of the GI tract
Nonciliated simpl ecolumnar cells are found where?
secreting digestive fluids, absorbing nutrients, as microvilli for absorption, and as goblet cells that secrete mucus onto free surfaces (excretion)
Functions of simple columnar cells include
Which type of epithelial tissue appears stratified, but isn't, and is commonly ciliated?
lining of the respiratory system, and the cilia that sweep away the mucus that goblet cells create.
Examples of pseudostratified columnar tissue is...
Type of epithelial tissue that is very thick and made up of many layers, that makes up the epidermis (skin)?
In the lining of the oral cavity, esophagus, vagina, and anal canal
Where else is stratified squamos tissue found?
Protein that produces a covering of dry, protective material that prevents water and other substances from escaping and microorganisms from entering the epidermis
This type of epithelial tissue has multiple layers of cuboidal cells that form the lining of a lumen (space within a tube)
Lines larger ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, pancreas, developing ovaries, seminiferous tubules
Stratified cuboidal is found where?
Which type of epithelial tissue is several layers of columnar cells, in which the superficial cells are elongated and the basal cells are cuboidal?
Lines part of the male urethra and ductus deferens and parts of the pharynx
Stratified columnar tissue is found where?
Type of epithelial tissue that is specialized to change in response to increased tension. It lines the urinary bladder and prevents the contents of the bladder from diffusing back into the internal environment.
Tissue that is specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or body fluids
columnar and cuboidal
Glandular cells are usually found within which two types of epithelium?
Two or more glandular cells compose a?
Which type of gland secretes into a duct that opens onto an open surface? (skin or GI tract)?
Which type of gland secretes into tissue fluid or blood?
which type of gland releases fluids by exocytosis?
Which type of gland loses small portions of glandular cell bodies during secretion?
Which type of gland secretes entire cells along with fluids?
Thin structures that are usually composed of epithelium and underlying connective tissue
mucuous, serous, synovial, and cutaneous
The four types of membranes are:
Which membrane type lines the joints and is composed entirely of connective tissue?
Which type of membrane lines tubes that open to the outside of the body, in which there are goblet cells inbetween epithelial cells that secrete mucous? (type of epithelium varies)
Which type of membrane lines cavities that DO NOT open to the outside and functions to reduce friction.
Which membrane secretes watery serous fluid?
Which membrane forms the inner linings of the thorax and abdomen and is also composed of simple squamos epithelium and loose connective tissue?
Which membrane is "skin"
What is the most abundant tissue type by weight?
Which tissue provides framework, fills spaces, stores fat, produces blood cells, protects against infection and helps repair tissue damage?
glands and membranes
Epithelial tissue forms?
Blood, adipose tissue, bone, and cartilage are all examples of ..........
Protein fibers and ground substance between cells in connective tissue is called ___
Cells that remain in their place
Cells that reside in different places in the body (do not remain in place)
Star-shaped cells that produce fibers by secreting proteins into the extracellular matrix, found in connective tissue.
What type of cell originates as a white blood cell, is usually attached to fibers in connective tissue but can detach, and functions as a scavenger cell (phagocytosis)?
What type of cell is usually found near blood vessels in connective tissue and secretes heparin, which prevents blood clotting?
Which cell releases histamine?
What are thick threads of collagen with great tensile strength? They are often found in components of body parts which hold structures together, such as ligaments and tendons.
dense connective tissue
Tissue containing abundant collagenous fibers
loose connective tissue
Tissue with sparse collagenous fibers
Which fibers are composed of a spring-like protein called elastin, and are yellow fibers?
What type of fiber is common in body parts that stretch such as the vocal cards and respiratory system?
What are thin collagenous fibers that are delicate supporting networks, such as in the spleen?
What is the name for the connective tissue that forms delicate, thin membranes that binds the skin to the underlying organs and fills spaces between muscles? (type of connective tissue)
What fibers form the delicate supporting framework for certain internal organs, e.g. liver, spleen, lymphatic organs
What type of connective tissue is rigid and provides support, frameworks, and attachments?
______ protects underlying tissues and forms structural models for bones.
What are cartilage cells called?
Which type of connective tissue has an extensive extracellular matrix which is largely composed of collagenous fibers embedded in a gel-like ground substance?
small chambers where chondrocytes are found
A cartilaginous structure is enclosed in a covering of connective tissue called _________, which contains the blood vessels.
Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
The three types of cartilage
Most common type of cartilage
What type of cartilage is most flexible?
Which type of cartilage is the toughest?
Which type of cartilage is composed of a dense network of elastic fibers, and makes up the external ears and parts of the larynx?
Which type of cartilage is composed of very find collagenous fibers, is found on the ends of bones and the soft parts of bones?
Which type of cartilage is used as a shock absorber such as inbetween vertebral discs, and is also used to cushion bones in the knees and pelvic girdle?
Bones begin as ______ during embryonic development.
What is the most rigid connective tissue?
abundant collagenous fibers and mineral salts
Bone is composed of?
red bone marrow
______ of bone forms red blood cells and is also used to store and release inorganic chemicals like calcium and phosphorous
What are the bone-forming cells?
Bone gets its hardness from ______
Tiny channel in bone tissue that contains blood vessels (also called Haversian canal), which osteocytes and layers of extracellular matrix concentrically cluster around.
A layer of extracellular matrix in bone tissue (layers of bone)
calcium and phosphorous
Bone stores and releases which two inorganic chemicals?
Once osteoblasts are surrounded by the bone matrix (lamellae), they become fixed and are known as ______.
_______ are cytoplasmic processes that extend outward and pass through minute tubes in the extracellular matrix of bone. Gap junctions connect them to membranes of surrounding cells, allowing materials to mvoe rapidly between blood vessels and bone cells.
Type of connective tissue that consits of cells suspended in plasma
red blood cell
blood cell that transports gases
white blood cell (leukocytes)
blood cell that fights infection
Function of platelets
formed elements of blood
What forms in the hematopoietic tissues in the red bone marrow?
________ forms when adipocytes stores fat in their cytoplasm
______ forms beneath the skin, in the spaces between muscles, around kidneys, behind eyeballs, in the abdominal membranes, the surface of the heart, and some joints.
Dense regular connective tissue
Type of connective tissue that is very strong, forms parts of tendons and ligaments (can withstand a lot of pulling), and has poor blood supply.
Dense irregular connective tissue
Type of connective tissue that is randomly organized and can sustain tension exerted from multiple directions. It is found in the dermis.
What major type of tissue is classified as voluntary and involuntary?
Skeletel muscles are controlled by conscious effort and are called __________
Smooth and cardiac muscle tissue can not be controlled by conscious effort and is called _____
skeletal muscle tissue
Type of muscle tissue that is attached to bones, has multinucleated cells, and is thin and narrow, with alternating light and dark striations.
smooth muscle tissue
Type of muscle tissue that lacks striations, has a single nucleus, and lines the walls of hollow internal organs (e.g. stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, uterus, bladder).
______ moves food through the digestive tract, constricts blood vessels, and empties urinary bladder
cardiac muscle tissue
Type of muscle tissue found only in the heart, which forms the bulk of the heart and helps pump blood through it.
Major type of tissue that is found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
Basic cells of nerve tissue
Nerve tissue transmits nerve impulses along cellular processes called ______ to other neurons or to muscles or glands
_____ bind and support the components of nervous tissue, carry on phagocytosis, and help supply growth factors and nutrients to neurons by connecting them to blood vessels.
Cell organelle that is large, spherical, and contains DNA
Cell organelle that consists of loosely coiled fibers in nuclear fluid (in the nucleus). The fibers contain DNA molecules wrapped around histones
Cell organelle that is composed of protein and RNA, which links amino acids to form proteins. They are found scattered in the cytoplasm and bound to rough ER.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Cell organelle that participates in protein and lipid molecule synthesis
ER that synthesizes protein
ER that synthesizes lipids, absorbs fats from the digestive tract, and breaks down drugs
Cell organelle that prepares cellular products for excretion by exocytosis.
"Garbage disposal" of the cell. Contains more than 40 types of enzymes that dismantle debris. The enzymes work only in very acidic conditions, which keep it from destroying other celular contents.
Inert chemicals within the cytoplasm of a cell.
"Powerhouse" of the cell, where the final step of ATP synthesis occurs.
Cell / plasma membrane
Part of the cell that is thin, somewhat flexible, that controls the entrance and exit of substances in and out of the cells. It also allows the cell to recieve incoming messages.
The cell membrane is _____ permeable, since it is composed of a phospholipid bilayer.
What is the cell membrane recieving and responding to messages called?
The interior of the cell membrane is composed of ____________, which gives it selective permeability and lipid-soluble items will pass through freely.
Protein that spans the cell membrane
Protein that projects from the cell membrane's outer surface
Protein that extends from the outer surface at one end of the membrane and dips into the cytoplasm at the other end of the membrane (functions as receptors)
Cellular adhesion molecules (CAM's)
______ enable cells to bind or touch, which helps white blood cells to slow and guide them to the site of an ingury, and also helps establish connections between nerve cells that underlie learning and memory.
Network of organelles suspended in liquid cytosol
Part of the cell that is the supportive framework formed by anetwork of protein rods and tubules
What is another word for the integumentary system?
Integumentary system (skin)
Keeping out pathogens, preventing the body from losing water, helping to regulate temperature, and synthesizing nutrients such as vitamin D are all functions of the ___________
epidermis and dermis
What are the two layers of the skin?
What is the outer layer of the skin?
stratified squamos epithelium
What tissue/cell type is the epidermis made up of?
stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale (stratum germinativum)
Layers of the epidermis from outermost to innermost
stratum basale (stratum germinativum)
What is the basal cell layer (deepest layer), which contains melanocytes?
Which skin layer is thicker, and contains connective tissue with collagen and elastin fibers, smooth muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and blood?
Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles
A sensory receptor within the dermis that is stimulated by heavy pressure is called _________
Tactile (Meissner's) corpuscles
A sensory receptor located within the dermis that senses light touch is called __________
Free nerve endings
Sensory receptors within the dermis that respond to temperature changes or to factors that can damage tissues and extend into the dermis are called _________
What connects the epidermis to the dermis?
subcutaneous layer or hypodermis
The layer below the dermis is called what?
areolar and adipose
Subcutaneous tissue is formed with masses of _____ and ______ tissues and contain blood vessels that supply the skin.
The blood vessels within the subcutaneous layer branch and form a network between the dermis and subcutaneous layer called ________
A waterproof, fibrous protein that accumulates in skin cells as they move further from the dermis and the blood supply.
As epidermal cells become keratinized, they become tightly packed, forming the ________
Glands found on the skin that are usually associated with hair follicles
Sebaceous glands secrete globules of fatty material that bursts cells called ______
Sebaceous glands are _______ glands
palms and soles
Sebaceous glands are found scattered throughout the skin but not found on the _____ and ______
Eccrine and apocrine
The two types of sudoriferous glands
Sweat gland that is abundant on the back, neck, and forehead, which produces profuse sweat (watery substance)
Sweat gland that causes odor when metabolized by bacteria, becomes active at puberty, and are activated when emotionally upset, frightened, or in pain.
nails and hair
Skin appendages include ____ and _____
palms, soles, lips, nipples, and parts of external reproductive organs
Hair is present everywhere on the body except in these places (5)
dead epithelial cells
The hair follicle is made up of
Dark hair contains more brownish-black ______
Blonde and red hair contains more reddish-yellow _______
nail plate, nail bed, and lunula
The three parts of the nail are
The whitish half moon area that is the most active growing part of the nail is called what?
skeletal system (bones)
Providing structure, producing blood cells, support and protection of softer tissues, and attachment for muscles are all functions of this body system
Long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid
Name the 5 classifications of bone shapes
Which bone has longitudinal axes, and expanded ends (diaphysis and epiphysis)
Which bone shape is cubelike and short?
Which bone type is platelike, with broad surfaces
Which bone type has a variety of shapes and is usually connected to several other bones
Which bones are usually small and nodular and are embedded in tendons adjacent to joints?
The patella is an example of a ______ bone
Backbones and facial bones are examples of _____ bones
Rib bones and some skull bones (frontal) are examples of this type of bone
Wrist bones and ankle bones are examples of this type of bone
Forearms and thigh bones are examples of this type of bone
Bone cells that are arranged in bony chambers called lacunae
central (haversian) canals
Osteocytes and lacunae form concentratic circles around _______
Bone forming cells, once surrounded by bony matrix in the lunacae are called osteocytes
Cells that break down calcified bone matrix
What process occurs as osteoclasts resorb bone tissue and osteoblasts replace the bone
Ends of long bones
Shaft of long bone
Type of bone tissue that is compact and found in the diaphysis
Type of bone tissue that is composed of thin layers of compact bone which branching plates with irregular connecting spaces.
Spongy bone and Compact bone are both composed of osteocytes and an extracellular matrix, but in _________ cells do NOT congregate around central canals.
Spongy bones contains bony projections called ______ which allows space for nutrients to diffuse into calaliculi (microscopic canals that connect bone tissue)
osteon (sometimes called Haversian system)
In compact bone, when osteocytes and extracellular matrix cluster around a central canal, they form a (an) _______
blood vessels and nerve fibers
central canals contain ______ and _______
longitudal, perforating canals
central canals run ______ through bone, while ______ (also known as Volkmann's canals) run transversely and contain larger blood vessels and nerves
Part of the skeleton that supports and protects the organs of the head, neck, and trunk.
Part of the skeleton that pertains the the upper and lower limbs and their girdles
How many bones are there total in the human skeleton?
How many cranial bones are there?
Frontal, parietal (2), occipital, temporal (2), sphenois, and ethmoid
name the cranial bones
How many facial bones are there?
Maxilla (2), palatine (2), zygomatic (2), lacrimal (2), nasal (2), vomer, inferior nasal concha (2), and the mandible
Name the facial bones
malleus (2), incus (2), and stapes (2)
Name the middle ear bones (ossicles)
Which bone is located in the neck between the lower jaw and the larynx, and supports the tongue?
How many bones are in the vertebral column
Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) sacrum, and coccyx
Name the bones and number in the vertebral column from anterior to inferior
ribs (24, 12 pairs of 2), sternum (1)
Name the bones and number of the thoracic cage
scapula (2) and clavicle (2)
Name the bones of the pectoral girdle
Humerus (2), radius (2), ulna (2), carpal (16), metacarpal (10), phalanx (28)
Name the bones of the upper limbs and number of each
The pelvic girdle
The two hip bones make up what?
Femur (2), tibia (2), fibula (2), patella (2), tarsal (14), metatarsal (10), phalanx (28)
Name the bones and number of the lower limbs
Where the inferior part of the brainstem connects with the spinal cord is called what?
Muscle groups, muscles, myofibrils, and sarcomeres are all components of what body system?
Several muscles that control a specific part of the body
Parallel, threadlike structures within a muscle fiber
actin and myosin
Myofibrils are thin filaments that consist of two types of protein ______ and _________
thick muscle filaments
thin muscle filaments
Alternating filaments form _____ in muscle tissue
The repeating pattern formed by striations of myosin and actin form the functional unit of myofibrils and muscles called _______
Filament theory of muscle contraction
When sarcomeres shorten (contract), the thick and thin filaments do not change length, but rather slide past each other and the thin filaments move toward the center of the sarcomere from both ends. As this happens, the H zones and I bands narrow, regions of overlap widen, and the Z lines move closer together, shortening the sarcomere This is called ____
For a muscle to contract, calcium ions have to be released from _________
actin filaments and myosin
calcium stops the inhibitory process on _____ filaments and ______ cross-bridges attach
ATP binds to the _______
ADP and phosphate
Myosin cross-bridges contain ATPase, which breaks down ATP to ______ and ______, resulting in the complete muscle contraction
Muscle type that is under voluntary control and has striations (from the sarcomeres)
Muscle type that is under involuntary control, not striated (no sarcomeres), display rhythmicity, and is active in peristalsis.
Smooth muscle lacks _________, the protein that binds to calcium ions for contraction. Instead, smooth muscles use a protein called ______ for contraction
norepinephrine and acetylcholine
__________ and ____________ are neurotransmitters that stimulate and inhibit contractions in smooth muscles
_________is a muscle type that is composed of striated cells joined end to end by special junctions called intercalcated discs, and is found only in the heart.
Cardiac structure acts as a unit, called ______, which means when one part is stimulated, the whole muscle responds
self exciting and rythmic
cardiac muscle is also _________ and _________
Muscle that reduces the angle of a joint
Muscles that increase the angle of a joint
Muscles that move the body away from the midline
Muscles that move the body back towards the midline
Muscle _____ often indicate a muscle's size, shape, location, action, number of attachments, or the direction of itts fibers
a muscle of large size
shaped like a delta or triangle
extends the digits
a muscle with two heads (biceps) or points of origin, in the brachium (arm)
attached to the sternum, clavicle, and mastoid process
Located near the outside, with fibers that run obliquiely or in a slanting direction
Basic functions of this system include recieving, interpreting, and reacting to stimuli
functional unit of the nervous system
axon, cell body, and dendrite
name the three parts of the neuron
Part of the neuron that arises from elevation called axonal hillock, and conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body
Part of the neuron that contains the nucleus with nucleolus
Part of the neuron that is highly branched and provides receptive surfaces for communicating nerve impulses towards the cell body
Type of nerves that carry nerve impulses away from the peripheral body parts and towards the brain or spinal cord
Type of nerves that carry nerve impulses out of the brain or spinal cord to the effectors (muscles or glands)
Central and Peripheral
Name the two nervous systems
Central nervous system
Nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
Nervous system that consists of the cranial and spinal nerves that connects the CNS to the rest of the body
Nervous system that oversees voluntary activities, such as skeletal muscle contractions
Nervous system that oversees involuntary activities, such as viscera (heart, various glands)
Medulla oblongota, pons, and midbrain
The brainstem consists of 3 parts, list them.
Which part of the brainstem functions as a two-way conduction pathway between the spinal cord and higher brain centers such as cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor control center
Which part of the brainstem is a two-way conduction pathway between areas of the brain and other areas of the body, influencing respiration
Which part of the brainstem is a two-way conduction pathway used as a relay for visual and auditory impulses
Hypothalamus and thalamus
A part of the brain called the diencephalon has what two brain areas within it?
Which part of the diencephalon (brain) is responsible for regulation of body temperature, water balance, sleep-cycle control, appetite, and sexual arousal?
Which part of the diencephalon (brain) is used as a sensory relay station from various body areas to cerebral cortex and controls emotions and alerting or arousal mechanisms?
What part of the brain is responsible for muscle coordination, maintenance of equilibrium and posture, and assists the cerebrum?
Which part of the brain is responsible for sensory perception, emotions, willed movement, consciousness, and memory?
medulla oblongota, pons, and midbrain
What 3 parts make up the brain stem?
white and gray
The brain stem consists of ______ and _____ matter
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