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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Chapter 6 Vocabulary: A New Industrial Age
Section 1: The Expansion of Industry Section 2: The Age of Railroads Section 3: Big Business and Labor
Terms in this set (39)
Edwin L. Drake
first person to use steam engine to drill for oil
individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques
an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
Bessemer and Kelly
Two men who invented a process for converting iron to steel
Wm. Le Baron Jenney
designed the first skyscraper with a steel frame.
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
An american entrepreneruer and engineer who invented the railroad and the air brake
invented the typewriter
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone
connected the two railroad across the United States at Promontory Point, Utah
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Professor C F Dowd
Created the idea of dividing into 24 time zones.
made his fortune by designing and building sleeper cars that made long distance rail travel more comfortable. Built a company town near Chicago for his employees.
Credit Mobilier Affair
Gave stocks to influential members of Congress to avoid investigation of profits making 348% from government subsidies. This hurt Grant.
The Patrons of Husbandry or farmers organized against rail road abuses. Similar group to the Farmers Alliance.
Munn vs Illinois
(1877) Supreme Court ruled that stated could regulate businesses clothed w/ a "public interest" including railroads. Went against "Granger laws" in which farmers wanted to fix max freight rates and warehouse charge against grain elevators
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Charles Darwin/ Theory of Natural Selection
Nature selects which traits are more favorable, which enables organisms to evolve and reproduce
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
the combination of two or more commercial companies
exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices
a company whose primary business is owning a controlling share of stock in other companies
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Joined his brother William in the formation of the Standard Oil Company in 1870 and became very wealthy.
group of "trustees"-who in turn ran the separate companies as if they were all one big company; In return
Sherman Anti-trust act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
to refuse to work in order to force an employer to meet certain demands
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Industrial workers of the world, most radical group. Under Haywood, envisioned utopian state run by workers. Small group, but accepted blacks, women, and immigrants
Mary Harris Jones
Labor organizer, known as Mother Jones. She fought for coal workers' rights by speaking in Appalachian mining towns, encouraging them to join unions. She also faught for child labor laws.
Yellow Dog Contract
an agreement some companies forced workers to take that forbade them from joining a union. This was a method used to limit the power of unions, thus hampering their development.
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