1 / 70
Behavior genetics
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (70)
Interactionthe interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor depends on another factor.Molecular geneticsthe subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and functions of genes.Evolutionary psychologythe study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection.Natural selectionthe principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be pass on to succeeding generations.Mutationa random error in gene replication that leads to a change.Genderin psychology, the biological and socially influenced characteristic by which people define male and female.Culturethe enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.Normsan understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. They prescribe proper behavior.Individualismgiving priority to ones own goals over group goals and defining in terms of personal attributes rather than a group identifications.Collectivismgiving priority to goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly.X chromosomethe sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes, males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.Y chromosomeThe sex chromosomes found only in males. When paired with a X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.Testosteronethe most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.Rolea set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.Gender rolea set of expected behaviors for males and females.Gender identityour sense of being male or female.Gender-typingthe acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine roleDevelopmental psychologya branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan.Continuity view (of development)seen development, continuous process without stages.Discontinuity view (of development)seen development in stages, very systematic and step by step progress through development.Zygotethe fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.Embryothe developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.Fetusthe developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.Teratogensagents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach an embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.Habituationdecreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.Maturationbiological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.Schemaa concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.Assimilationinterpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemes.Accommodation(1) the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina. (2) adapting our current understanding (schemes) to incorporate new information.Cognitionall the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.Sensorimotor stagein Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.Object permanencethe awareness that things continue to exist even what not perceived.Preoperational stagein Piaget's theory, the stage ( from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.Conservationthe principle ( which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.Egocentrismin Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.Theory of mindpeople's ideas about their own and others' mental states-about their feelings, perception, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.Concrete operational stagein Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.Formal operational stagein Piaget's theory, the stage cognitive development ( normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to logically about abstract concepts.Zone of proximal developmenta zone between what they could learn with and without help.Stranger anxietythe fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.Attachmentan emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.Critical periodan optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.Imprintingthe process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in lifeBasic trustaccording to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.Self-conceptall our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?".Adolescencethe transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty io independence.Pubertythe period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.Rites of passageevents in life that many people go through that symbolizes passing onto a next stage in life (i.e. graduation).Primary sex characteristicsthe body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.Secondary sex characteristicsnonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breast and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.Menarchethe first menstrual periodIdentityour sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.Intimacyin Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early childhood.Menopausethe time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes women experience as her ability to reproduce declines.Alzheimer's diseaseit strikes 3 percent of the world's population by age 75. First memory deteriorates, then reasoning deteriorates.Cross-sectional studya study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.Longitudinal studyresearch in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.Social clockthe culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.Stages of death and dyingcreated by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, the stages are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.