59 terms

CP 4, The Carbohydrates, Sugars, Starches and Fibers

What are Monosaccharrides?
Single sugars. - Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose.
What is Glucose?
A monosaccharide sometimes know as blood sugar or dextrose.
What is Fructose?
A monosaccharide, sometimes known as a fruit sugar or levulose. It is found abundently in fruits, honey and saps.
What is Galactose?
A monosaccharide, part of the disaccharide lactose.
What are Disaccharides?
Pairs of monosaccharides linked together. - Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose.
What is Maltose?
A disaccharide composed of two glucose units; sometimes known as malt sugar.
What is Sucrose?
A disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose; commonly known as table sugar, beet sugar, or cane sugar. Can occur in many fruits and some vegetables and grains.
What is Lactose?
A disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose; commonly known as milk sugar.
What are Polysaccharides?
Compounds composed of many monosaccharides linked together.
What are Oligosaccharides?
Compounds composed of an intermediate string of three to ten monosaccharides.
What is Glycogen?
An animal polysaccharide composed of glucose; manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles as a storage form of glucose. It is not a significant food source of carbohydrate and is not counted as one of the complete carbohydrates in foods.
What are Starches?
Plant polysaccharides composed of glucose. - Found in grain, legumes.
What is Dietary Fiber?
In plant foods, the nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria. They include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, meculages, and nonpolysaccharides lignins, cutins, and tannins.
What is Soluble Fibers?
Indigestible food components that dissolve in water for form a gel. An example is pectin from fruit, which is used to thicken jellies.
What is Insoluable Fibers?
Indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water. Example include the tough, fibrous structures found in the strings of celery and the skins of corn kernals.
What are Resistant Starches?
Starches that escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy people.
What is Phytic Acid?
A nonnutrient component of plant seeds, also called phytate. Occurs in the husks of grains, legumes, and seed and is capable of binding minerals such as zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and copper in insoluble complexes in the intestine, which the body excretes unused.
What is Amylase?
An enzyme that hydrolyzes amylose (a form of starch). A carbohydrase, an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates.
What is Satiety?
The feeling of fullness and satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal. Determines how much time passes between meals.
What is Maltase?
An enzyme that hydroyzes maltose.
What is Sucrase?
An enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose.
What is Lactase?
An enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose.
How are Glucose and Galactose Absorbed?
Active Transport.
How is Fructose absorbed?
Facillitated Diffusion.
What are the Symptoms of Lactose Intolerance?
Bloating, gas, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea.
What is Lactose Deficiency?
A lack of the enzyme required to digest the disaccharide lactose into its component monosaccharides (glucose and galactose).
What is Lactose Intolerance?
A condition that results from the inability to digest milk sugar; lactose.
What does the body use for energy?
If glycogen stores are depeleted, the body makes glucose from?
Protein - gluconeogenesis.
What is Protein-Sparing?
The action of carbohydrate (and fat) in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes.
Where is Glycogen stored?
Liver and muscles.
What is Ketosis?
An undesirably high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and urine. Found during starvation.
What is Ketone?
The product of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells.
What is Insulin?
A hormone secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to increased blood glucose concentration. The primary role is to control the transport of glucose from the bloodstream into the muscle and fat cells.
What is Glucagon?
A hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration and elicits release of glucose from liver glycogen stores.
What is Hypoglycemia?
Low blood sugar level, below 60 - 70 mg/dl. Fat used for fuel, ketosis results.
What is Diabetes?
A chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually resulting from insufficient or ineffective insulin. Blood glucose remains high after a meal. Insulin inadequate of ineffective. Normal range is 70 - 100 mg/dl of blood.
What is Type 1 Diabetes?
The less common type of diabetes in which the pancreas fails to produce insulin.
What is Type 2 Diabetes?
The more common type of diabetes in which the cells fail to respond to insulin.
What is the treatment for Type 1 Diabetes?
Insulin, Diet, and Exercise.
What is the treatment for Type 2 Diabetes?
Weight loss, diet, exercise, and drugs.
What is the Glycemic Index?
A method of classifying foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose.
What is Glycemic Response?
The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response.
What is Glycemic Load?
Refers to a foods glycemic index and the amount of carbohydrates the food contains.
What do the DRI suggest that sugar intake should be for women?
No more than 100 Cal/25G/6 TSP.
What do the DRI suggest that sugar intake should be for men?
No more than 150 Cal/37.5G/9TSP.
What is the average DRI for a 2000 calorie diet of Sugar intake?
No more the 8 TSP.
What is the RDA for Carbohydrates?
130 g/day. 45 to 65% of energy intake.
What is the DV for Carbohydrates?
300 g based on 60% of 2000 kcal diet.
What is the DV of fiber?
25g fiber (based on 11.5g/1000 kcal).
What is an Artificial Sweetner?
A nonnutritive sweetner, a fake sugar.
What is Saccharin?
An artificial sweetner that has been approved for us in the US. In Canada, approval for use in foods and beverages is still pending, currently available only in pharmacies and only as a tabletop sweetner, not as a additive.
What is Aspartame?
An artificial sweetner composed of two amino acids (phenylalanine and aspartic acid); approved for use in both the US and Canada.
What is Acesulfame-K?
Acesulfame potassium. An artificial sweetner composed of an organic salt that has been approved for use in both US and Canada.
What is Sucralose?
An aritifical sweetner approved for use in the US and Canada, made from sugar, passes through the digestive tract.
What is Stevia?
A south american shrub whose leaves are used as sweetners; sold in the US as a dietary supplement that provides sweetness without kcalories. - Truvia.
What are Sugar Replacers?
Also called nutritive sweetners, sugar alcohols and polyols. - Matitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, isomalt, and lactiol. Abosrbed more slowly and metabolized differently in the body. Low glycemic response. Can cause GI discomfort.
What is a side affect os Symptom that you can develpo of sugar substitues?
Headaches, weight gain, abdominal discomfort.
What is the minimum amount of carbohydrates an individual should consume per day in grams to prevent ketosis?