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Ecology: Soils as Environments
Terms in this set (32)
0-.002 mm particle size.
.002-.05 mm particle size.
.005-2.0 mm particle size.
An even distribution of clay, silt, and sand. Holds the most water. Easiest for plants to get water from it.
Water held against gravity.
The "stickiness" of water. Responsible for field capacity.
Water held by less than this pressure drains by gravity. The pressure has to be greater than this to hold the water in the soil.
The maximum field capacity of plants. If the water is held by a higher pressure than this, then plants will not be able to take it up.
The maximum field capacity of soil.
The wilting point of the soil. Field capacity in this range results in plants not being able to take up water.
1. parent materials
2. dead organic material
The three components of soils.
The underlying rocks of soil. Contains particles, inorganic nutrients, and trace elements.
H2O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg
Inorganic nutrients in soils.
Fe, Zn, Na, Cu
Trace elements in soils.
The decomposers in soils. Responsible for organic recycling. Bacteria are the most important.
Primary succession-secondary succession.
Development of a community. Bare rock becomes a mature community.
Development of a community. Mature soil or a damaged community becomes a mature community.
The three steps of rock fragmentation.
The breaking up of parent material in rock fragmentation.
H2O + CO2 --> H2CO3. Eats limestone, which was once organic material. Part of rock fragmentation.
1. rock fragmentation
2. lichens and small rooted plants
3. primitive (immature) soils
4. soil thickening
5. horizon formation
The five steps of soil development.
primitive (immature) soil
Organic material added to the soil. Still has rocks sticking out.
Larger rooted plants break down over time in the soil.
first stages of development start at the top of a mountain
A way to examine the stages of soil development in the field.
2. brown earth
Three types of soils.
Located in boreal forests. Thick layer of litter (needles) on top. Not much turnover because of freezing. Named for zone of leaching, which looks like ashes. Not much organic material, so poor soil for supporting plant communities. Nutrients are not available to plants when frozen, only during summer.
Located in the south. Fast recycling, deciduous trees, thick humus layer. Can lose calcium from zone of leaching. Leaves break down faster than needles and don't give off the organic acids. Leads to a richer community with more biomass in the trees.
Located in the west. Prairie, grasslands. Aka "black earth". Dry climate, warm and humid with rains in the summer. No forest. Dominant plants are grasses. Not as much leaching or runoff--> the water moves up and down, mixing organics and inorganics. "Bread Basket" has lots of agriculture, needs irrigation.
The moving of water up and down within the soil, mixing organic and inorganic components.
zone of leaching
Where water runs through the soil. Soluble things get carried out, while insoluble things stay where they are.
1. Water comes from it
2. Inorganic and organic nutrients come from it
3. Organic recycling
4. Structural matrix (biotic and abiotic components)
The four reasons why it is important to study soils.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ecology: World Climate
Ecology: Landscape Ecology
Ecology: Physiological Ecology
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