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Unit 2: Industry & The Gilded Age
Terms in this set (30)
The process in which a society transforms itself from an agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services.
A new process discovered by Henry Bessemer used to create steel more efficiently & cheaper.
24 hour zones that are 1,000 miles apart from the other - created to standardize time
Railway cars that were designed to be like luxury hotels but on the railways also known as sleepers
people who have left the country of their birth to live in another country
A person who has been forced to leave their home country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.
National Reclamation Act of 1902
Passed to improve canals, waterways and other irrigation systems in the West. It would improve living conditions, farmland, and later provide electric power.
An immigrant receiving station off the coast of NY, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy
The immigration station off the coast of San Francisco Bay, where Asian immigrants (mostly Chinese) gained entry after experiencing harsh questioning & poor conditions
the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot.
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country but allowed students, teachers, tourists, and merchants to immigrate.
Due to the threat of Chinese laborers taking American jobs
agreement with Japan to limit immigration of unskilled workers to the US in exchange for the lifting of segregation of the schools
Movement of people from rural areas to cities
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it.
Captain of Industry
a business leader who expands his/her industry & leaves a positive mark on the industry and society
Practice in which a single manufacturer controls all of the steps used to change raw materials into finished products.
A corporate expansion strategy in which companies acquire their competitors to create a monopoly.
Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional
Munn V. Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads.
Interstate Commerce Act
created Interstate Commerce Commission to require railroads to publish rates - wasn't powerful/effective til 1906 w/ T. Roosevelt
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 congressional legislation designed to break up industrial trusts/monopolies such as the one created by John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil. Because of the vagueness of the act and the lack of enforcement, few trusts were actually prosecuted as a result of this bill.
American Federation of Labor
Led by Samuel Gompers; alliance of skilled workers in craft unions; focus was bread-and butter issues such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions
American Railway Union
Led by Eugene Debs, they started the Pullman strike, composed mostly of railroad workers.
Industrial Workers of the World
Radical union founded in 1905 to unite the American working class into one union; advocated social revolution; led several major strikes; associated with violence
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
The illegal use of political influence for personal gain
Granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
Pendleton Civil Service Act
attempt to stop patronage and political scandal, required government employees to pass a Civil Service Exam